Analysis and prevention of production safety accidents in animal feed mill plants
1. Types of safety accidents in animal feed mill factories
(1) Fire: For example, the woven bag warehouse of a feed production factory catches fire, and the raw materials of an animal feed processing plant in Henan ignite spontaneously.
(2) Dust explosion: Dust explosion is produced in a relatively closed environment, which can cause huge damage, such as the explosion of the welding chute on the fifth floor of a in Feicheng, the explosion of the silo of a plant for manufacturing animal feed in Shouguang, An explosion occurred in the finished product warehouse of an animal feed pellet making plant in Dezhou, and a dust explosion occurred in the crushing system of a poultry animal feed mill in Laiyang.
(3) Boiler accidents: such as the boiler tube burst of a feed making factory in Juxian County and Huantai cattle poultry feed mill, and accidents caused by the boiler barrel of Jinxiang feed factory being deficient in water.
(4) Electrical circuit accidents: for example, a fire in the electrical control cabinet of a crusher in a chicken feed making plant in Shouguang, or a short circuit in the powder workshop of Huimin Science and Technology Park and a fire.
(5) Personal injury and death accidents: For example, a scraper in a livestock feed pellet manufacturing plant in Heze caused an employee's finger to be broken, a cattle feed pellet granulator equipment in a feed workshop in Yantai accidentally operated a cattle feed pellet making machine and a roller caused a broken finger, and a drive belt in a feed manufacturing factory in Changyi Injured his hand, an employee of Liaocheng Feed Factory was killed in a car accident after get off work.
(6) Special equipment accidents: the hanging basket of a floating fish feed plant in Junan slipped off, the steel wire rope of the hanging basket of an animal food manufacturing factory in Henan was broken, the central control system of a cattle and poultry feed plant in Feicheng was struck by lightning many times, and the computer operating system was damaged.
(7) Quality accident: improper addition of water in the production process of an automatic poultry pellet feed plant in Guangrao caused feed mildew; a cattle animal pellet feed production plant in Guanxian County caused the product to be unqualified due to the wrong feed; a sinking fish feed production plant factory in Liaocheng produced uneven feed mixing, resulting in quality accident.
2. How to avoid different accidents?
①We must first understand the conditions of fire. There are three main ones:
★There are combustibles (packages, raw materials, finished products, acetylene, gas, dust, etc.);
★There is input energy (fire source, etc.).
★Zone, isolate and strengthen management of flammable materials;
★Fireworks are strictly prohibited in the production area, and electrical appliances, wires and cables are regularly checked to prevent aging, looseness, damage, moisture, short circuit, overload, and heat;
★Check whether the lightning protection system is intact to prevent lightning strikes;
★Prevent spontaneous combustion of special raw materials, such as fish meal, meat and bone meal, chemical reagents and other special raw materials should be properly kept;
★Ensure that the fire fighting facilities are in good condition.
Dust explosions account for 48% of accidents in compound feed processing plants. Dust explosions are flammable solid dust or mist droplets of flammable liquid dispersed in the air or other combustion-supporting gases. When the concentration reaches the explosive limit, it will receive considerable ignition. An explosion that must occur with energy.
① There are three necessary conditions for dust explosion:
★With combustion agent (dust);
★There is input energy. The concentration of dust that is very prone to explosion is 10-200μm;
★Dust explosion concentration limit: the lower limit is 20-60g/m3; the upper limit is 2-6kg/m3. The higher the relative concentration, the greater the explosive power. The environment that is prone to dust explosion mainly includes silos, silos, distributors, slide pipes, elevators, crushers, dust removal equipment, workshop basements, crushing rooms, etc.
②Preventive measures for dust explosion include:
★Control the dust concentration, eliminate the generation of dust and strengthen the sealing of the equipment to prevent dust from spreading;
★ Equipped with a suitable suction and dust removal device; timely sweep, clean, eliminate and prevent dust accumulation;
★Fire is strictly prohibited in fire-prohibited areas, for example: strictly enforce the prohibition of fireworks in the factory;
★When open flames are required for work in prohibited areas, in accordance with the safety production management system, the work must be approved by the workshop director and necessary protective measures are taken;
★The cleaning section of the workshop must be equipped with sufficient magnetic separation equipment, regularly cleaned and checked to prevent metal objects from falling into the high-speed equipment and causing sparks;
★Check the tightness of the connecting parts frequently to prevent the connecting parts from falling off and the transmission parts from running off, causing friction and heating to generate sparks;
★Use explosion-proof lighting equipment for workshops and warehouses;
★For equipment prone to static electricity, protective grounding should be adopted to eliminate static electricity;
★Dust environment resolutely pay attention to the open environment, set up ventilation, explosion-proof openings, etc.
Causes of boiler explosion and preventive measures:
★Pay attention to the regular inspection and discharge test of the safety valve to prevent the boiler from overpressure and explosion caused by the failure of the safety valve;
★Prevent overheating: pay attention to the correct use of water level and water level gauges, and always check whether the boiler water quality meets the requirements, and pay attention to frequent blowdown and descaling of the boiler to prevent the boiler from lacking water and scaling causing boiler overheating and accidents;
★Eliminate oxidation, strictly implement the water quality management system, and take necessary maintenance measures when the furnace is shut down to remove the ash in time to prevent accidents caused by corrosion of the furnace body;
★Early detection, timely and proper handling of water hammer, sudden cold and heat, and load fluctuations to avoid accidents.
(4) Preventive measures for electrical wiring accidents:
★The electrical wiring installation must comply with the electrical industry specifications, and the supporting facilities are complete;
★Electrical equipment is well equipped with ventilation and heat dissipation devices;
★Check frequently to prevent aging, loosening, damage, moisture, and short circuit of electrical appliances and cables;
★Frequently remove the deposited dust on electrical equipment;
★Ensure that there is no grounding wire or reliable grounding to avoid charging the equipment;
★Illegal operations are strictly prohibited, such as: frequent startup, startup with load, excessive refueling, etc.;
★Use safety protection facilities correctly;
★It is strictly forbidden to place or place items in the power distribution room, control room and cabinet;
★Use the sensor protection device correctly.
(5) Special equipment and article management:
★Safety and maintenance management of lifting system;
★Strengthen the management of flammable products such as oxygen, acetylene and liquefied gas;
★Strictly implement the safety management system of forklifts and other motor vehicles;
★Regularly inspect and maintain the pressure vessel;
★Check the compressor's working condition frequently to prevent the leakage of the ammonia compressor;
★Pay attention to the storage of special chemicals and corrosive products to prevent damage and spontaneous combustion;
★In accordance with the national electricity safety management regulations, professionals are required to conduct normal inspections and maintenance of the transformer and power distribution systems;
★Check the lightning protection and fire-fighting facilities regularly to ensure that they are normal and effective.
3. Safe production in animal feed manufacturing factories
To sum up, the reasons for safety accidents in feed production factories are all illegal operations, which are related to the human factor. So the biggest safety hazard of animal feed line factories at present is to allow untrained employees to directly work. Without well-trained employees, they do not understand the production site, and their personal safety awareness is not strong. They will not deal with abnormal situations. They are important promoters of potential safety hazards. Therefore, it is hoped that feed production companies will attach importance to the three-level safety education for new employees before they start their jobs, and safety training for employees who have changed positions and on-the-job employees, so that they can truly understand and master the safety operating procedures in their positions, and at the same time understand what happened in their positions. For safety accidents, learn to discover hidden safety hazards at the scene during your work, and rectify them in time. Take necessary precautions against easy-to-occur safety accidents, so as to effectively prevent or avoid safety accidents.
The safety production of the animal feed processing factory mainly includes three aspects: personal safety, article safety, and quality safety. The specific links involved are:
(1) Links involved in personal safety: all operators in the animal feed line plant are required to use labor protection measures correctly;
(2) The animal feed processing equipment must be listed for maintenance and cleaning;
(3) Special operations personnel must hold certificates and follow the operating procedures;
(4) Check employees' health and participate in necessary accidental injury insurance every year;
(5) The production site, canteen, dormitory, etc. must be sanitary and disinfected;
(6) Ensure that employees have a healthy diet and prevent food poisoning;
(7) There must be warnings, protective fences and other safety facilities for places with hidden safety hazards;
(8) Fences must be installed at the observation port on the top of the warehouse to prevent people from falling;
(9) High-speed running equipment must be equipped with a protective cover;
(10) Regular inspection and maintenance of safety equipment;
(11) The lifting system of the workshop should be operated in accordance with the safe operation regulations, and the special equipment boiler and pressure vessel should be operated in accordance with the safe operation of the national special equipment;
(12) For high-temperature pipes and equipment, they must be insulated and scalded;
(13) Keep things flowing in the poultry livestock ruminant animal feed factory with a speed limit of 5 km/h to prevent traffic accidents and strengthen the management of vehicles and personnel at the gate.
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