The influence of feed formula on feed production process in animal feed mill plants
1. The feed formula determines the animal feed line production process
(1) Determine the processing technology of raw materials. For example: in the production of extruded suckling pig feed, extruded corn is used, but the processing technology is different. One method is to expand the corn first, then mix it with other raw materials, and then granulate; the other method is to first mix the corn with other raw materials and then expand it. The suckling pig feed produced by these two production processes can be called extruded feed, but the process is different.
(2) Determine the shape of the finished feed product. In the early stages of the development of the feed industry, feed products had only one shape of powder, but with the emergence of advanced processing techniques such as granulation, puffing, post-curing, and post-spraying, the appearance of feed has become more colorful and similar. The products can be produced in different shapes according to different feed formulas.
(3) Determine the crushing particle size of raw materials. The crushing process is the basic operation unit of feed processing and an important process in the animal feed plant production process. The crushing operation involves feed processing costs (power consumption, vulnerable parts), raw material loss (moisture and dust), mixing uniformity, and pellet feed quality And so on. The crushing particle size of the raw materials varies according to the requirements of the feed formula. Generally speaking, the requirements of the formula for the crushing particle size are mostly marked by the number of meshes, but in actual production, the aperture of the animal feed hammer mill crusher is mostly calculated in millimeters, so unit conversion and crushing particle size testing are required to determine the most Optimal production process parameters.
(4) Determine the process parameters of the pelleting system. Different products, the process parameters of the pelleting system will be different, even for similar products, the process parameters such as quenching and tempering time, ring die aperture, ring die compression ratio, cooling time, and grading sieve aperture will occur due to different formulations. Variety. For example, the ring die compression ratio of ordinary aquatic feed is generally 13-16. This design is beneficial to reduce the powdering rate and powder content of the product, and can also meet the water stability of the product. However, after the raw material variety and raw material After the proportion adjustment, after meeting the same requirements, the ring die compression ratio can be reduced to 8, and the production efficiency has been significantly improved.
2.Effect on the animal feed making plant production process
In a general animal feed mill factory, the number of ingredient bins is fixed. If there are more types of ingredients in the formula than the number of ingredient bins, it will cause many undesirable results in all parts of the feed factory production process:
The adverse effect on the feeding process. Due to the large variety of raw materials and the few batching bins, and the limited volume of the batching bins, the feeding varieties must be replaced frequently. However, in order to ensure the feeding quality and avoid cross-contamination between the raw materials, it will lead to the increase of equipment idling time and useless work. It not only affects the production efficiency and increases the production cost, but also increases the difficulty of coordination between the work sections, which is not conducive to the development of production work.
The adverse effect on the crushing process. If there are too many specifications of the raw materials to be crushed in the same feed formula, the crusher will frequently change materials or frequently shut down to replace the screen. The direct result is reduced production efficiency and increased equipment wear.
The adverse effect on the batching process. Due to the large variety of raw materials and the few batching bins, it will not only increase the number of raw material dumps in the production process, but also increase the batching time and reduce batches due to the excessive variety of formula raw materials. If it is small or liquid, there are more varieties. And miscellaneous, in order to ensure product quality, the mixing time will be prolonged, which will further increase the production cost and decrease the production efficiency.
The adverse effect on the granulation process. The influence of the feed formula on the granulation process is mainly reflected in the variety of raw materials and the proportion of addition. The granulation characteristics of the raw materials are the main factors affecting the granulation effect.
The influence of raw material particle size on granulation process. The raw material particle size can be divided into coarse, medium and fine particles. Medium and fine granules have good granulation performance, low energy consumption, and little wear on the ring die and pressure roller. When the medium and fine particles are tempered, they have more surface area to contact with steam than the coarse particles. The steam can easily penetrate the core of the particles to make them fully mature and improve the granulation quality. However, the crushing of the material will increase the cost. When coarse-grained raw materials are granulated, the coarse particles cannot be completely penetrated by steam, and the surface area in contact with each other is less than that of the medium and fine particles, and the adhesion is poor. After the granulation, the particles have a large expansion rate and are easy to crack.
The influence of raw material density on granulation efficiency. Density less than 0.33t/m3 is called light raw material, and more than 0.4t/m3 is heavy raw material. The output of light raw material granulation is low, and the output of heavy raw material is high.
The effect of high-protein raw materials on granulation efficiency: Generally, protein raw materials with higher density have good plasticity and are easy to squeeze deformation, which is beneficial to granulation. However, when these raw materials are granulated separately, if the steam is added too high, the pressure roller will slip, and a certain amount of energy raw materials must be added to obtain a better granulating effect.
The influence of fat content in raw materials on granulation effect. The fat has a good lubricating effect on the granulation process, which can increase the granulation output and reduce the wear of the ring die and the pressure roller. However, when the fat content is too high (over 6%), the granulation quality will deteriorate and the granules will become soft. Difficult to shape. If you want to produce granules with high fat content, you can add 1% to 3% during granulation, and the rest can be sprayed and added after granulation. In this way, more fat can be added and the appearance quality of the particles can be improved.
The effect of raw materials with high fiber content on granulation efficiency. The fiber contained in the raw material is unfavorable for granulation. It reduces the granulation output and accelerates the wear of the die hole. Fiber can be divided into two types, one is multi-gluten type, such as alfalfa, sweet sprout stems, sweet potato stems, etc., which can absorb steam and soften during granulation, play a binding role, and improve the strength of the particles; the other type Shelled products, such as oats, soybeans, cottonseeds, peanuts, and peanut shells and screenings, etc., can not absorb steam during granulation, but also play a discrete role in the particles, reducing the quality of the particles.
3. Formula design has a great influence on product quality control
The impact on the particle persistence (PDI) index. The research results show that the formula (raw material composition and ratio) determines 40%, and the production process and equipment factors such as crushing particle size, quenching and tempering effect, die hole parameters and cooling process determine 60%, which is enough to explain the importance of the formula.
The impact on cross-contamination in the production process. The more raw materials selected in the feed formula, the more likely it is to cause cross-contamination between the raw materials, which will adversely affect product quality. The more product specifications and varieties produced by the same production line, the more likely it is to cause cross-contamination.
The influence on measurement accuracy. The proportion of raw materials added in the formula should be suitable for the accuracy of the measuring equipment in the production process. If it exceeds the measuring range, it will not only reduce the conversion rate of the formula, but also adversely affect the quality of the product.
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