Feed formula design for broilers
①Select and determine the breeding standards. Based on the special standards of broiler chickens in the Chinese chicken breeding standards, refer to NRC (National Research Council) and other standards, and make appropriate adjustments according to chicken breeds, feed resources, breeding and management conditions, local conditions and processing methods of ingredients.
②Adopt stage feeding management technology. The breeding standards of broiler chickens all over the world list their different nutritional levels by stage (week age) to ensure that the nutritional level provided is closer to the actual needs of broiler chickens, and to promote the growth of broiler chickens more effectively and economically use protein feed.
③ Use an appropriate amount of dietary energy concentration. Broilers have a certain ability to regulate the feed intake of diets with different energy concentrations, with low intake of high energy concentration diets and high intake of low energy concentration diets. It is ideal that the metabolic energy concentration of broiler diet is above 12.86MJ/kg. Limited to conditions, it can be reduced to the specified value of Chinese breeding standards. When carrying out stage feeding, the energy concentration of each stage can be equal or gradually increased, but the decreasing trend should be avoided as much as possible. Adding oil can effectively increase the energy concentration, and the addition level is: 1% for small broiler, 1.5% for middle broiler, and 2% for big broiler. Generally, laying hens need to be supplemented with 100-120g daily diet; for broilers,130-150g.
④Preparation with high protein level is used. Under the premise of dietary amino acid balance, it is more appropriate to increase the crude protein of the diet to 22% in the early stage and reduce to 18% in the later stage.
⑤ Pay attention to the balance between various amino acids in the diet. When the energy concentration of the formula is higher or lower than the standard, the dietary amino acid level should be increased or decreased according to the ratio of amino acid to energy. For the insufficient amount of amino acids, the nutritional value can be improved through the complementary effects of multiple protein feeds, or they can be supplemented directly by synthetic amino acids.
⑥Sufficient mineral elements and excessive vitamins. Calcium and phosphorus must be adequately supplied in the form of compounds that facilitate absorption (such as monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, etc.). Vitamins and trace elements are regulatory substances. The figures listed by China and NRC are the minimum requirements. The content in the feed can be used as a safe dosage, and the regulations in the standard can be used as the added amount. However, due to the unstable activity of vitamins, it can be 50-100% or higher than the standard in practical application, especially vitamin A. At present, the use of post-spray technology can maintain vitamin activity and reduce the vitamin additive dosage.
⑦ Reasonable use of pharmaceutical additives and enzyme preparations. The addition of antibiotics should be strictly controlled 1 to 2 weeks before the sale to avoid residues. The introduction of exogenous enzyme preparations and probiotics will help digestion and absorption.
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