Animal processing technology issues that should be paid attention to when using sorghum and barley
As Australian sorghum barley and American sorghum enter the Chinese market one after another, the application of sorghum barley in feed is increasingly accepted by the market. Sorghum barley as a raw material that can replace corn feed has been used in more animal feed mill companies. While more research on nutrition, the research on its production technology cannot be ignored.
1. The difference of animal feed crushing process
Many countries have big differences in the understanding of the crushing particle size of sorghum barley. According to Australian feed mills and farms' self-proportioning data, the difference in sorghum and barley crushing process is likely to cause low production efficiency for pigs. In vitro starch digestion experiments have shown that the larger the crushed particle size, the lower the digestibility, and the crushed particle size of sorghum or barley cannot be greater than 1mm. Other studies have concluded that for hard sorghum and soft sorghum, the ideal degree of crushing is 300 microns-500 microns, respectively. But as pigs and chickens age, the ideal particle size also increases. The crushing strength of sorghum barley should pay more attention to the principle of being more suitable for tempering and pelleting. The particle size is small, the unit weight of the feed has a large contact surface and the tempering is more sufficient. Therefore, the crushing particle size of sorghum barley feed is not easy to be too large (recommended not to exceed 1.2mm ). It is generally believed that the animal feed hammer mill grinding machine is more capable of reducing the pulverized particle size than other types of animal feed crushing machines.
2. Material moisture control during mixing
The moisture content in the powder before conditioning is a very important parameter, which has a greater impact on the quality of the finished feed product, the efficiency of animal feed manufacturing process, the loss of equipment, the absorption of feed nutrients by the animal, and the performance of animal production. Sorghum barley requires higher temperature and low humidity steam for tempering, so for better tempering and granulation, the moisture after mixing is particularly important. After mixing, the moisture should be controlled at about 12-13%, because the best preparation The grain moisture is 15%-16.5%, and the material temperature rises by 11 degrees for every 1% increase in moisture. Therefore, if the moisture content is too low after mixing, the material temperature cannot reach the optimal temperature. When the moisture content is too low after mixing, it is recommended to add liquid The antifungal agent aqueous solution is adjusted.
3. Higher steam requirements during tempering
The conditioning is an important part of animal feed production. Steam quality plays a decisive role in quenching and tempering quality. Conditioning is a process in which steam transfers moisture and heat energy to the feed. Only dry saturated steam can quickly transfer heat energy to the feed. The heat transfer of saturated steam is instantaneous. Due to the low heat capacity and poor heat transfer performance of superheated steam, superheated steam requires a self-cooling process of 2-3 minutes, and the conditioning process is less than 3 minutes, so the conditioning cannot be completed well. The heat capacity of wet steam is also very low, and the secondary evaporation will further reduce the heat energy, and its water content will also hinder the heat exchange between steam and feed, causing local moisture to be higher, easy to cause pelleting slip, and local moisture Later, it is not easy to be taken out during cooling, and it is easy to cause local mildew.
Sorghum barley is rich in starch and fiber. If wet steam is used for its conditioning, it will be more prone to slippage. If superheated steam is used, the starch will be poorly gelatinized due to insufficient conditioning and granulation. It will be more difficult, so the steam requirements are higher than corn feed.
How to get dry saturated steam? The following measures must be taken:
(1) The pressure of steam coming out of the boiler must be guaranteed. Generally speaking, the steam coming out of the boiler must be guaranteed to have a pressure of more than 6 kg;
(2) The transmission pipeline must achieve the minimum loss: use the pipeline with the appropriate pipe diameter and minimize the pipeline length. When the length of the pipeline cannot be reduced, the slope of the pipeline (100:1 inclined to the direction of steam delivery) should be done, and a trap should be added to the bottom of the pipeline every 50 meters for effective drainage;
(3) Before entering the conditioner, it is necessary to effectively reduce the pressure and adjust the steam pressure to a suitable pressure (different conditioners, different materials, and different conditioning pressures). Generally, the conditioning pressure is not easy to exceed 4 Kilograms;
(4) The steam pipeline after decompression should be about 1.5 times larger than the conveying pipeline, and it must be effectively drained. Generally, there should be a riser before entering the conditioner, with steam at the bottom and the upper end into the conditioner , Make the bottom drain to prevent the condensed water from entering the conditioner;
(5) Pay close attention to the temperature and pressure after decompression, check the temperature according to the pressure, and ensure that the steam is saturated steam (for example, the pressure after decompression is 0.2MPa, which corresponds to 2.04 kg, and the temperature should be 120.24 degrees by querying. If the temperature is too high, the steam is superheated steam. When the temperature is too low, it is wet steam). Generally, the pipeline after decompression should not be insulated, which is more conducive to the temperature of the steam falling to the corresponding temperature after decompression.
4. The difference of pelletizing ring die
Because sorghum barley has a lot of starch and fiber, more squeeze is needed to ensure smooth granulation when granulating. Therefore, the opening rate of the ring die is not easy to be too high, otherwise the area of the bell mouth will be reduced It will reduce the amount of feed squeezed into, causing difficulty in pelleting and reducing pelleting capacity. Richi Machinery reminds everyone that the ring die with the same compression ratio and the feed using sorghum barley have a slightly lower hole opening rate than corn feed .
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