What aspects should be paid attention to in the construction of large-scale cattle farms?
1. Conditions for building large-scale cattle farms
(1) Meet the requirements of the local land use development plan and the construction and development plan of villages and towns.
(2) The topography of the site is dry and flat. The sunny slope should be chosen for the construction of the site in hilly and mountainous areas, and the slope should not exceed 20 degrees.
(3) The water source is sufficient and easy to access. Every 100 cattle in the herd needs 20 to 30 tons of water per day, and the water quality should meet the requirements of drinking water.
(4) Electricity must be sufficient and reliable, and meet the requirements of electric safety.
(5) The hydrogeological and engineering geological conditions required by the construction project must be met.
(6) The local prevailing wind direction throughout the year, the site should be located in the downwind direction of residential areas and public buildings.
(7) The transportation is convenient. The boundary of the farm is no less than 500 meters away from the main traffic line, no less than 1,000 meters away from residential areas and other livestock farms, and no less than 1,000 meters away from the livestock product processing farm.
(8) Sites shall not be built in lots or areas: water source protection areas, tourist areas, nature reserves, areas with serious environmental pollution, areas where livestock and poultry diseases frequently occur, valleys and depressions and other flood-threatening areas.
2. Cattle farm planning and layout
(1) Planning principles
The building is compact. While saving land and meeting current production needs, it also comprehensively considers the possibility of future expansion and transformation.
(2) The area is divided into high-density rearing and low-density rearing,
If the density is low, it is calculated by raising 1 cow and occupying an area of 20-25 square meters. With enough sports grounds, cattle are not easy to fight, which is more conducive to fattening. Of course, many cattle farms currently fail to meet this standard, and most of them are raised in high density. Generally, a cow that is fed and fattened occupies an area of less than 2 meters.
The building facilities of the large-scale cattle farm are divided into three functional areas: living management area, production area, and isolation area. Each functional area must be clearly defined. The distance between the functional areas is not less than 30-50 meters, and there are isolation belts or walls for epidemic prevention.
The feed warehouse and feed processing workshop are located between the production area and the living area, and should be convenient for vehicle transportation. The pasture is set on the side of the production area.
(4) Building (First consider ventilation and heat preservation)
The building form of the cow house can be open shed, semi-open and closed. The open shed and half open cow house should be kept warm in winter, and the closed cow house should pay attention to ventilation and ventilation.
If it is a place that is not particularly cold in winter, you can use an open or semi-open cowshed. If it is cold in winter in the north, you should choose a closed type in consideration of heat preservation.
The cow house can adopt brick-concrete structure or light steel structure, and the shed can adopt steel pipe pillars. The length of each barn depends on the number of cattle raised, and the distance between the two barns is about 8-10 meters.
The ground should be firm, non-slip, easy to scour, with a slight slope of 1.5%-2%. The ditch is 25-30 cm wide and 10-15 cm deep, and slopes toward one end of the manure storage tank. There are many concrete floors on the ground. The water absorption is not very good. The cowshed is relatively humid. It is recommended that you use standing bricks. In this way, the water permeability is strong, the ground is relatively dry, and it is not prone to foot rot.
The feeding trough is set in front of the cow bed, the bottom of the trough is oval, and the inner surface of the trough should be smooth and durable.
(5) Storage facilities for cattle feed
The silage cellar: the designed capacity is 20 kg silage per cow per day and 500 to 600 kg per cubic meter of silage.
Coarse feed: Calculated based on 4-6 kilograms of coarse feed per cow per day.
Concentrated feed: There should be a special storage warehouse, and the required amount of concentrated feed is calculated based on 1% to 1.5% of the daily body weight of each cow.
Economic, reasonable, safe and reliable fire-fighting measures should be adopted. The fire-fighting channels can use the on-site roads and can be connected to the off-site roads in emergency. Adopt a water supply system that integrates production, life, and fire protection.
(7) Sanitation and epidemic prevention
There are fences, epidemic prevention ditches, and green isolation belts around the cattle farm. Compulsory vehicle disinfection facilities are set up at the entrance of the cattle farm and the back door. The production area should be strictly separated from the living management area. A personnel dressing and disinfection room should be set at the entrance of the production area, and a ground disinfection pool should be set at the entrance of the cowshed.
(8) Environmental protection
Environmental assessment is required for new cattle farms. In accordance with the requirements of "Environmental Quality Standards for Livestock and Poultry Farms, NY/T388-1999", ensure that the cattle farm does not pollute the surrounding environment and the surrounding environment does not pollute the environment of the cattle farm. Adopt production technology and equipment for pollutant reduction, harmlessness and resource treatment. Newly built cattle farms must simultaneously construct corresponding manure and sewage treatment facilities. The solid manure is mainly processed by high-temperature composting, and can only be transported out of the site after it meets the national regulations. Sewage must also be treated before it can be discharged.
The greening of the farm area should be combined with the isolation, shading and wind protection between the farm area and the cattle farm. Tree species and flowers that can beautify the environment and purify the air can be planted according to the actual local conditions, or mosquito-repellent grasses, such as planting mosquito-repellent plants near the cowshed, common tuberous plants, Qilixiang, lavender, and pitcher plants.
It is not suitable to grow plants that are poisonous, thorny, or fly.
In addition to the beautiful and majestic housing estates, some cattle farms have facilities such as weighbridges, disinfection rooms, fecal wet and dry processors, feed grinders, epidemic prevention inspection rooms, offices, and workers’ dormitories; in actual operations, unless Funds are very abundant, and equipment and facilities not just needed can be gradually developed.
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