How should broilers choose drinking water equipment?
1. Selection of drinking water equipment
Drinking equipment should be selected according to the age of the chickens. Small chicks should use tower-shaped vacuum drinkers, and adult chickens can use water basins or sinks.
(1) Tower-shaped vacuum drinker. This kind of drinking fountain consists of two parts: a water cylinder and a water tray. The top of the water tank is tapered to prevent chicks from standing on top. The top and side walls of the cylinder must not leak air. The size of the chassis should be selected according to the size of the chicken. Only allow the chicken to drink water and not let the chicken stand in the water. There are two round holes at the bottom of the cylinder of the drinking fountain, and the position of the holes should not be higher than the upper edge of the disc, so as to prevent water from overflowing out of the chassis. This kind of drinking fountain has a simple structure and is convenient for cleaning and disinfection.
(2) Hanging tower drinking fountain is suitable for large-scale flat rearing and can maintain clean water quality. The water supply is adjusted by the drinking fountain. When the water is low, the drinking fountain is light, and the spring can push the inlet gate, and the water flows out; when the water weight reaches the limit, the water flow stops.
(3) The V-shaped sink can be made of galvanized iron, cement, bamboo poles, etc. It should be fixed when using it to prevent being stepped over by chickens. With this kind of sink, the chicken will throw out the water when drinking, it is easy to wet the litter, and it is not easy to wash.
2. The relationship between broilers and drinking water
People often ignore the importance of water in broiler production. In fact, water is one of the most important substances for chickens to maintain health and laying eggs. It is a nutrient necessary to maintain life. It is directly related to feed conversion rate and even chickens s life.
(1) The content, distribution and source of water in chickens
The water content of chicks is about 70%, and the water content of chicks within one week of age is 85%, mainly in intracellular and extracellular fluid. Of the total body water, the water in the intracellular fluid accounts for 50%, and the water in the extracellular fluid accounts for 15%. Most of the water is taken in the body through drinking water, and the rest comes from the metabolic water produced by the metabolism of water and nutrients in the feed.
(2) Physiological function of water
Water plays an extremely important role in the digestion and metabolism of chickens. Water can help chickens digest feed, and is also a carrier for chickens to discharge metabolic waste. Water is not only a solvent necessary for nutrient absorption, rotation and metabolic waste excretion, but also a chemical reaction medium in the metabolic process. Water directly participates in many chemistry reaction. Water has the properties of large heat capacity and high heat of evaporation. The body temperature is regulated by the absorption and discharge of water, so it is of great significance to keep the body temperature constant. Water can also be used as a lubricating fluid to keep the joint surface of the bones smooth and free of movement.
(3) Harm of water shortage to chickens
Insufficient drinking water results in poor digestion and absorption of feed, thick blood, rising body temperature, growth and egg production are affected. A 10% lack of water in a chicken can cause death. Kidney disease and polycythemia can occur when chicks lack water, the skin around the legs becomes dry and dehydrated, and the inner layer of the chicken's stomach becomes soft or mushy. When laying hens lack water, ovarian necrosis, stomach inflammation, kidney disease, decreased egg production, reduced egg weight, thinner eggshells, shellless eggs, or complete cessation of production occurs. Practice has proved that if laying hens cannot get drinking water for 24 hours, egg production will drop by 30%, and it will take 25 to 30 days to resume normal egg production. If there is a shortage of water for 36 hours, the laying hens can no longer resume normal laying. If the water is cut off for a few hours under high temperature conditions, it will accelerate the poisoning and death. The effect of the amount of water on the weight change of the chicken will be manifested after 8 hours. Water directly affects the growth rate of chickens, especially broilers.
The amount of water has an important influence on the composition of feces. The increase in drinking water will increase the water content of the feces, which will make the ground damp, which is not conducive to the growth of chickens and the eggs are also easy to get dirty. The chicken's drinking water is more than 2.5 times of the feed intake, the chicken manure will become soft and thin, which will eventually affect the chicken's growth and egg production.
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