The effect of nutrients on fish feed
1. The effect of protein on the immune function of fish feed and shrimp feed: if too much protein is ingested, the protein that cannot be digested and utilized will be excreted in the form of nitrogen, which not only reduces the body's utilization efficiency of protein, but also increases water quality management.The pressure is also easy to cause intestinal diseases. Under relatively suitable protein level conditions, the balance of amino acids will not only enable fish and shrimp to grow faster, but also their immunity will be enhanced.
2. The effect of fat on the immune function of fish and shrimp: Fat, especially essential fatty acids, is an important regulator of fish and shrimp immune response. Adding essential fatty acids to the diet can improve the humoral and cellular immunity of the animal body, promote the production of cellular immune factors, have an important impact on the proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated by mitosis, and can enhance the phagocytic ability of macrophages.
3. The effect of vitamins on the immune function of fish and shrimp:
(1) VC is a nutrient necessary for the normal growth and maintenance of normal physiological functions of fish and shrimp, and many fish and shrimp cannot be synthesized and must be obtained from the diet. VC has a certain effect on the humoral immune response and non-specific cellular immune response of fish and shrimp. Therefore, adding VC to the fish and shrimp diet can enhance the immune response and non-specific cellular immune response. Adding VC to the diet can enhance its immune function, improve its disease resistance and survival rate. VC is necessary for the normal immune response of fish and shrimp, but it does not act directly, but cooperates with some antioxidant substances (such as VE) and metal elements (such as copper and iron) that have defensive functions on the body.
(2) VE is also an important nutrient for fish and shrimp. Its main function is antioxidant, to protect fat-soluble cell membranes and unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. Appropriate addition in feed can be used as an immune-enhancing substance to strengthen the phagocytosis of cells , Strengthen the production of phagocytes.
(3) VA is necessary to maintain the normal function of the fish and shrimp immune system. The high level of VA in the feed can improve the phagocytic ability of lymphocytes in fish and shrimp and the vitality of serum lysozyme and specific complement, thereby having an important impact on the immune function of fish and shrimp.
4. The influence of mineral elements on the immune function of fish and shrimp: Mineral elements such as iron, selenium, copper, zinc and other elements are very important in the disease resistance and immune response of fish and shrimp, and they cannot be lacked in the feed.
To sum up, the nutrients of aquatic feed can not only affect the normal growth of fish and shrimp, but also affect the immunity and disease resistance of fish and shrimp. However, the interaction between fish and shrimp nutrition and immune factors and the mechanism of action are still unclear. It is necessary to strengthen the study of the relationship between immune factors and nutrients in fish and shrimp to provide a strong theoretical basis for aquaculture to promote water Sustainable development of the industry. The purpose of feeding the fish is to provide the necessary nutritional requirements for the fish to maintain good health, optimal growth, and optimal yield, and to minimize the waste brought to the environment for the best profit Pay a reasonable cost. Good nutritional quality and physical properties of feed are the key to fish farming technology to achieve production and economic goals.
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