What mineral elements are needed in broiler feed formula?
What mineral elements are needed in broiler feed formula?Calcium and phosphorus are the components of bones. 65% to 70% of the total minerals in broilers are compounds of calcium and phosphorus. The calcium in bones accounts for 99% of the total body, and the remaining 1% is in blood, lymph and other tissues. Calcium plays an important role in blood coagulation. Together with sodium and potassium, calcium maintains the normal functions of the heart, muscles and nerves. Calcium plays an important role in the acid-base balance of the body. About 50% to 60% of calcium in conventional feed can be absorbed and utilized by broilers, and the calcium content in broiler diets is required to be 0.6% to 1%.
Phosphorus in bone accounts for 80% of total body phosphorus and 0.8% of fat-free chicken body. Most of the phosphorus in the broiler body is in an organic state. It is a component of nucleic acid, high-energy phosphoric acid, phosphoprotein, phospholipid, creatinine phosphate, hexose phosphate and other substances. The blood also contains a part of phosphorus. Phosphorus is also involved in many kinds of broilers. metabolism. Broilers can use 30% of the total organic phosphorus in the feed, and the total phosphorus content in the broiler diet is required to be 0.6%.
When preparing broiler diets, in addition to meeting the needs of calcium and phosphorus, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus should be adjusted according to the feeding standards. If the ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet is not appropriate, even if the content of a certain element is high, it is difficult to fully absorb and utilize it. For broilers, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is best controlled at 1.2 to 1.5:1. The calcium content should not be too much, otherwise it will affect the growth and development of the chicks, as well as the absorption of phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, zinc and other elements.
In addition, pay attention to the state of calcium and phosphorus in broiler feed. If the calcium and phosphorus are in a combined state and are not easily dissolved, even if the content in the feed is sufficient, it is difficult for broilers to absorb it, and deficiency will still occur. The utilization rate of phytate phosphorus in broilers is low, about 30% before 4 weeks of age, and about 50% after 4 weeks of age. The utilization rate of inorganic phosphorus in broilers can reach 100%. Therefore, a part of inorganic phosphorus must be supplemented in the broiler diet, and special attention should be paid to the lack of fishmeal in the diet.
In addition to calcium and phosphorus, sodium is also an important mineral element. The main role of sodium is to maintain the excitability of muscles and nerves, maintain the osmotic pressure of body fluids, regulate acid-base balance, and control water metabolism. The way to supplement sodium is to add salt. However, broiler chickens have limited tolerance to sodium, and a dietary sodium chloride content of 0.7% will cause poisoning and death. The amount of salt in the broiler diet should not exceed 0.38%. However, when formulating diets, the actual amount of salt added should be considered based on the actual salt content in the feed. Animal-derived feeds such as fish meal contain more sodium chloride, and domestic fish meal contains higher sodium chloride. Therefore, if domestic fish meal is used in broiler diets, salt cannot be added. The amount of trace elements in broiler diets is very small.
The dosage of iron is 80 mg per kilogram of diet, 60 mg for manganese, 40 mg for zinc, and only 0.15 mg for selenium. A slight excess of trace elements may cause toxic reactions. In addition to salt, other mineral elements that are prone to poisoning reactions are selenium, copper, manganese, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, etc. Common symptoms include bone sclerosis, stones, skeletal deformities, and embryonic deformities. In this regard, farmers should pay great attention to it, weigh carefully when preparing broiler diets, and must well mixed by chicken feed mixer.
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