Protein and amino acid in chicken broiler pellet feed formula
The main component of broiler somatic cells is protein, which is transformed from feed protein. Among the dietary components, the price of protein feed is relatively high. Therefore, whether protein feed can be used economically and effectively is the key to controlling the cost of broiler breeding.
Protein is a macromolecular organic compound, which forms a variety of amino acids after being hydrolyzed in the body. It can be seen that amino acids are the basic units of protein. The quality of chicken broiler pellet feed protein is actually whether the amount and proportion of amino acids in the protein are consistent with the protein composition of the broiler body. The amino acid contained in the feed protein is not comprehensive or the ratio is inappropriate, and the utilization rate of broilers after eating is not high, which means that the quality of the feed protein is poor; on the contrary, the ratio of amino acids (especially essential amino acids) contained in the feed protein is balanced, and the ratio of protein is balanced.
The high utilization rate indicates that the feed protein is of good quality. Therefore, the biological potency of protein does not depend on the protein content, but the level of protein utilization. Feeding broilers with a mixture of two or more protein feeds is better than feeding them alone. This is because the content of various amino acids in the protein is not balanced. If several feeds are used in combination, they can learn from each other's strengths and make the ratio of amino acids in the feed more reasonable, thereby increasing the utilization rate of feed and reducing breeding costs.
There are many types of amino acids, but there are about 20 types of amino acids that make up protein. Some of them cannot be synthesized in broiler chickens or cannot meet their needs. They must be supplied by feed. These amino acids are essential amino acids. If the intake of essential amino acids is insufficient, it will be difficult to develop the production capacity of broilers. There are 10 essential amino acids, namely lysine, methionine, tryptophan, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine. For chicks, it is also necessary to supplement glycine, cystine, and tyrosine.
When formulating broiler diets, not only the total amount of protein must be considered, but also the type and quantity of amino acids. The insufficient part needs to be added additionally. Cereal feed lacks lysine, while legume feed lacks methionine. When formulating broiler diets with corn and bean cake as the main combination, care must be taken to supplement lysine and methionine. According to experiments, adding methionine to a diet containing 15% crude protein has a very significant effect on weight gain for broilers. Although adding lysine can promote growth of broilers, the effect is not significant. Many experiments have shown that in compound feed, methionine or methionine + cystine (the two have a synergistic effect in the body) are the first limiting essential amino acids, followed by lysine and tryptophan. Therefore, when preparing broiler diets, the above 3 to 4 amino acids should be satisfied as much as possible.
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