Do you know the rational use of new corn in layer feed?
1. Commonly used laying hens feed materials are:
(1) Energy feed: mainly grain feed, such as corn, wheat and bran.
(2) Protein feed: such as soybean meal, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and fish meal.
(3) Mineral feed: such as calcium-containing feed stone powder, shell powder, etc.
(4) Industrial synthetic vitamin feed.
(5) Additive feed: such as antibacterial growth promoters, anticoccidial agents, antioxidants, antifungal agents, phagostimulants, etc.
The largest amount of feed for laying hens is corn, usually 50% to 70%, so the quality of the feed is largely affected by the quality of corn. In autumn, the weather turns cooler and the feed intake increases. If you don't pay attention to the reasonable use of this new corn when it is on the market, the chickens will often become diarrhea, overfeeding, and low egg production performance. Therefore, Ruiqi Machinery will make a brief discussion on the characteristics, acceptance and use of the new corn, in order to help layer farmers to use the new corn rationally. (This article takes China as an example)
2. Characteristics of new corn
(1) High water content and low nutrition, low feed return
The main production area of corn in China is the north, and the weather is already cold when harvested. In addition, there are bracts on the ears of corn, and the plants cannot be sufficiently dried by the sun, so the original moisture of corn is generally higher. The moisture of newly harvested corn is generally 15-20% in North China, and 20-30% in Northeast and Inner Mongolia. High water content corresponds to low dry matter content, which means that the content of each nutrient will decrease. Based on a 14% basis, corn gluten is 7.8% and metabolizable energy 3220Kcal. For every 1% increase in water content, protein decreases by 0.1% and metabolizable energy decreases by 37Kcal.
(2) High resistant starch, not conducive to digestion
After new corn is harvested, it does not mean that it is fully mature. Corn is a post-mature physiological crop. The new corn contains a resistant starch that is not easily digested. The content of new corn will gradually decrease after storage for a period of time (5-6 weeks). Resistant starch cannot be digested in the small intestine, but in the large intestine it is easily fermented by E. coli, producing toxins that can cause diarrhea and also cause low feed conversion rates.
(3) Prone to mildew and deterioration, causing gastroenteritis
Most farmers believe that corn mold only occurs during corn storage, but in fact, corn mold is divided into storage mold and field mold. Approximately 25% of grains have been contaminated by mold before and after harvesting. High-moisture corn is also prone to mold and deterioration when stored, which is an important factor in causing gastroenteritis.
3. Acceptance and use of new corn
After understanding the problems in the use of new corn, attention should be paid to the acceptance, preservation, and use:
(1) Control the quality when accepting new corn
Since it is close to the time of storage, fresh and delicious is the biggest advantage of new corn, but new corn tends to have higher moisture content, so it is more prone to pests and mildew. Therefore, in the usual corn standards such as moisture, impurities, and bulk density, more attention should be paid to sensory indicators and moldy grain indicators. Impurities> 2% are rejected, imperfect particles are controlled within 5%, and moldy kernels are controlled within 2%, which reduces the phenomenon of insects and mold during the post-curing process of new corn during storage.
(2) Use of new corn
The new corn can be processed in advance after receiving:
①Sieving and passing the new corn can effectively reduce the content of broken kernels and impurities in the corn, thereby reducing the harm of mycotoxins to animals and improving the palatability.
②Storage and aging. New corn needs to be stored in the warehouse for 5-6 weeks, preferably more than one month, and use it after maturation.
The following methods can be used when using new corn:
① Mixed transition. When new corn must be used, pay attention to controlling the addition ratio. It can be gradually mixed with high-quality old corn to gradually increase the addition ratio of new corn. The transition period is more than half a month to reduce the impact of resistant starch.
② Make up for nutrition. When using the purchased corn, the water content of the corn should be checked regularly, and the appropriate energy-protein ratio should be ensured as much as possible through formula adjustment. If the water content of corn exceeds 14%, consider making up for the lack of effective energy value caused by water. Commonly used methods are to increase the amount of corn or use high-energy oils, and lysine and methionine can be appropriately added. Simple treatment can be used: for every 1% increase of water in corn, 0.3% of oil is added to the full price to compensate for the energy reduction caused by the increase in water.
③Crush it for current use. Corn with a moisture content of more than 17% has high fatty acid value and is easy to rancidity. Therefore, high-moisture corn should be used and crushed.
(3) Seeking corn substitute products
You can look for other feed ingredients to replace corn as the main energy feed for laying hens, such as wheat and sorghum. What needs attention is to compare the nutritional difference between the substitute and the corn, and supplement it accordingly, and pay attention to the anti-nutritional factor content of the substitute.
Example: If wheat is used instead of corn, according to NY/T33-2004, the β-carotene content of corn with China Feed Number (CFN) 4-070280 is 0.8mg/kg, linoleic acid is 2.20%, and protein is 7.8%. (Dry matter 86.0%), if you use wheat instead, you can see that although the protein is 6.1% higher, the β-carotene is half of corn, and the linoleic acid is 1.61% lower, which will cause the egg weight to decrease and the yolk color to lighten. , And its non-starch polysaccharides limit the amount of wheat added, and it is necessary to add special wheat enzymes or complex enzymes based on xylanase.
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