Problems and solutions of quality and formula difference of pellet feed in animal cattle cow feed mill plants
The quality of finished cattle cow pellet feed is the foundation for the healthy development of the livestock feed industry, and it is directly related to the production efficiency of the breeding industry, the interests of users and the reputation of the ruminant cattle cow sheep feed manufacturing plant. At the same time, the stability of cattle feed products is also an important guarantee for the development of feed industry and animal husbandry. However, in the cattle cow feed pellet production process, the quality of the finished product and the cattle feed formula design often have certain differences. For this reason, the factors affecting the quality of pellet feed products should be analyzed first, and then effective solutions should be found.
1. The influence of feed ingredient quality
Raw materials are the basis for the quality of finished feed products. The raw materials of cattle feed pellet proceesing factories come from all directions. Even if they are the same kind of raw materials, due to the origin, variety, soil, harvesting method and maturity at harvest, processing methods, climatic conditions, moisture content, mold The nutrient content also varies greatly depending on the degree of change. Especially in the season of shortage of feed ingredients, the varieties are more diverse, the quality is worse, and the mixing is serious. In this case, it is necessary to pay attention to the analysis of raw materials, accumulate and organize the data of commonly used raw materials, conduct finished product inspections, and find out the differences and regularities of raw materials.
In addition, the storage time of raw materials will also affect their nutritional value, and the problem of additive premix is more prominent. If the additives have poor stability, they will fail quickly under the action of ultraviolet rays and oxidation. Vitamins are easy to oxidize, and sulfates are easy to absorb moisture and return moisture.
2. Ingredients influence
The accuracy of the ingredients directly affects the quality of the finished product. In formula design, the accuracy generally reaches two decimal places, but it cannot reach this level in actual cattle feed pellet production. The batching metering equipment of the cattle feed production factory is the key to the accurate realization of the formula design. When the computer controls the batching, the advancement of various raw materials is designed to be reasonable or not is the key to the accuracy of the batching.
3. The influence of mixing uniformity
Mixing uniformity is an important quality indicator, which means whether the actual composition of each diet consumed by the product or even the livestock and poultry is consistent with the formula design. Among them, the physical properties of the cattle premix feed are very different due to the micro-components, and the addition amount of some components is too small, and it is more difficult to ensure its uniform distribution.
The factors affecting the uniformity of mixing mainly include the following three aspects:
(1) Equipment: Simple cattle feed equipment, poor performance or abrasion of cattle feed mixing equipment will affect the uniformity of mixing
(2) The physical properties of powder particles. Modern compound feed is a product containing a variety of different ingredients. Many ingredients vary greatly in particle size, shape, specific gravity and addition level, which all affect the uniformity of mixing.
(3) Operating conditions: including the mixing ratio of each composition in the mixture, the loading coefficient (the mixing amount exceeds the design amount will seriously affect the mixing uniformity), feeding method, feeding order, feeding speed, cattle fed mixer speed, and mixing time And so on have an impact on the uniformity of mixing.
4. Granulation impact
Due to the high temperature and high pressure in the pelleting process, the nutrients in the cattle cow livestock feed will be damaged to varying degrees, especially the damage to vitamins and enzymes. The addition of steam and water in the pelleting will usually cause partial decomposition and The enzyme preparation has failed.
5. The influence of finished cattle cow feed pellets product moisture
The high moisture content of the finished product will result in a relative decrease in the content of various nutrients, and too high moisture will speed up the decomposition of vitamins. The total water content during pelleting is determined by the water content of the powder and the amount of steam added. When feeds composed of different raw materials enter the cooling tower, the difference in water content is relatively large. The difference in particle size and composition of the cattle pellet feed has an effect on the cooling time. The requirements of air flow, ventilation, etc. are also different. If the working state of the cooling air drying system is constant, it will inevitably lead to differences in the moisture content of the final product. Packaging is the last process to determine the moisture content of the finished product. The amount of heat that can be converted is different in different batches of feed, so when the temperature of the material is too high, the moisture will also increase.
6. The influence of static electricity
In the process of feed processing, due to the electrostatic effect of friction, some materials are adhered to the equipment and mixed with other materials, causing cross-contamination. In particular, several trace components are greatly affected by static electricity.
7. The impact of sampling and testing
Incorrect sampling will increase analysis error. Analytical test error is one of the factors that affect the quality of finished feed products. If the analytical test value is too high or too low, the calculated value during formula design will be higher or lower. Even if the same sample is measured in different laboratories, the measured value will be very different. This is the result of the influence of the technical level of the laboratory staff and the quality of the laboratory equipment.
8. How to eliminate or minimize the difference between finished cattle pellet quality and cattle feed formula?
(1) Establish a strict raw material inspection system, conduct sensory inspection and nutrient composition analysis of all incoming raw materials, and regularly check the raw materials with large quantities and long storage times (usually once a month, half a month in high temperature and high humidity seasons) once). Additives (especially vitamins should be stored in a warehouse with good storage conditions, low temperature, dry, and ventilated, and storage time should be minimized). A certain "safe amount" should be added according to the length of storage time and the loss during processing. The formula should be adjusted in time according to the detection situation of the raw materials. For the sake of convenience and accuracy, the feed formula computer can be used to quickly change the formula according to the changes in the price of the raw materials and the nutrients.
At the same time, we will accumulate testing data, establish our company's feed material database, explore the characteristics of raw materials, and formulate our company's feed material nutrient composition table to provide services for more accurate formulation design.
(2) In addition to the selection of high-precision scales, regular inspections, maintenance, and calibration of measuring instruments, the grading weighing method must be used according to different stages of the process: that is, large scales are used for large materials, and small scales for small materials. Strictly check when weighing. When the computer controls the batching, accurately set the drop of each raw material to reduce the batching error, and frequently check the working conditions of the adding device (such as the grease adding system) and the control system.
(3) To ensure the uniformity of mixing, in addition to paying attention to the mixing quality of the equipment when selecting equipment, the cattle feed mixer equipment should also be inspected weekly to make it in good working condition. The crushing of various raw materials must reach a certain particle size range, and the particle size of various materials should not be greatly different, so as not to affect the mixing effect. Strict operation management is the key to ensuring feed uniformity. Each mixer has an optimal mixing time. Long or too short will affect the uniformity of mixing. In addition, attention should be paid to the selection of additives, carriers and diluents.
(4) The steam used for granulation should be controlled to a minimum to reduce the damage to certain trace components. Reducing the amount of steam required can also be achieved by reducing the size of the powder and adding a particle binder.
(5) To control the moisture content of the finished pellets, conditioning and cooling fans are the key. The quenching and tempering process largely depends on the operator's experience, and the amount of steam added should be controlled according to the moisture content of the powder material and the temperature of the mold material before quenching and tempering. The working condition of the cooling air drying system has a great influence on the quality of the particles, especially the moisture and temperature of the finished product. On-site inspections should be strengthened during the production. According to the moisture content of the particles in the cooler, the size and composition of the particle size Change, adjust the cooling time and cooling air volume. When packaging, the feed in the package should be cooled first, and the feed temperature should be lowered to 8 degrees higher than the ambient temperature before packaging, so as to reduce the moisture by scattering through various means such as radiation.
(6) In order to prevent cross-contamination of products caused by static electricity, the equipment should be cleaned strictly in accordance with the equipment cleaning procedures when changing the formula, which is particularly important for the production of premixes.
(7) Improve the testing organization, strengthen the technical training of the laboratory personnel, improve the technical level of the laboratory personnel, select high-quality laboratory equipment, and strictly follow the regulations when storing the raw materials. A sampler with a slender groove is used for feed sampling, and accurate methods are used to collect, prepare and analyze feed samples.
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