How should the ventilation and warmth of the pig house be done in winter?
The focus of pig farm management in winter is heat preservation and ventilation. The main reason why pigs are sick in winter is low temperature and humidity. Viruses especially like this environment.
Some people would say that the heat preservation is simple. The doors and windows of the pig house are all sealed, and the pigs must not be frozen! But don't forget, pigs eat and drink in one place. The ammonia in the urine Poisonous and harmful gases, such as gas, can't be dissipated and will cause more damage to pigs! Therefore, pig farms need to be kept warm and ventilated. Then the question arises. How do we solve this contradiction?
1. What is the optimum temperature for different pig herds?
We all know that pigs at different stages have different temperature requirements. Piglets, nursery pigs and lactating sows have higher temperature requirements. We have to develop different insulation measures for different needs. The temperature required for suckling sows is 18℃～22℃, and the temperature required for newborn piglets is 32℃～35℃. There is a big difference. Therefore, suckling piglets must use an incubator with an electric heating plate on the bottom and a far-infrared baking lamp for heating. The internal temperature of the incubator can be heated to above 30°C, which can fully meet the demand.
The temperature of nursery piglets should be controlled at 26℃～28℃ within one week of weaning to reduce weaning stress. It will gradually decrease in the future, and it should not be lower than 18°C to 20°C in the middle and large pig stage. Once it is lower than the lower critical temperature, it will increase the feed intake and slow the growth rate.
2. What are the insulation measures?
In the construction of pig houses, heat preservation facilities should be considered first. Only pig houses with good heat preservation performance will be warm in winter and cool in summer, which is energy saving. The method of heat preservation can be adapted to local conditions, such as grilling lamps, electric heating plates, floor heating, fire kang, hot air stoves, etc. Among them, the editor thinks that the hot air stove is more suitable. First, it has a wider range of adaptation and can be used in all kinds of stables. Second, the hot air stove can be installed outside the pig house, and fresh hot air is blown into the pig house, which can effectively reduce the harmful gas and humidity in the pig house and maintain a good house environment.
3. How to solve the contradiction between heat preservation and ventilation?
The fundamental way to solve the contradiction is to increase the house temperature. The greater the temperature difference between the pig house and the outside, the easier it is to ventilate. If the house temperature is not high, you can open the doors and windows on the leeward side in the morning when the weather is clear. In a well-closed pig house, install two or more small exhaust fans at a position above 1 meter from the ground to regularly discharge the exhaust gas in the house. Be careful not to use skylights to ventilate in winter, as it will cause the loss of hot air. Pigs are only afraid of thieves, that is, convective cold air, because thieves can reduce the temperature of the pig house by 10°C, which is very harmful to pigs.
In winter, even when the temperature of the pig house is relatively high, the presence of thieves can make pigs feel abnormally cold, which can lead to colds and other diseases. If restricted by conditions, when there is a conflict between ventilation and insulation, ventilation should be given priority to ensure that the harmful gases in the house do not exceed the standard. It should also be noted that dry manure should be used as much as possible, and the manure can be cleaned without water.
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