The correct installation and use method of grease adding equipment in animal feed processing plant
In the animal feed making plant production, adding fat can effectively improve the palatability of feed, and can also reduce dust in the ingredient process and equipment wear. The oil used for livestock and poultry feed is generally lard, tallow, soybean oil, etc. Grease adding equipment is an indispensable part of the animal feed producing line. At present, most of the oil adding equipment installed in China is produced by China itself. This article will explain how production and feed processing companies should install and use grease adding equipment.
Although the feed refueling equipment produced by various feed equipment manufacturers is different in appearance, their basic working principles are similar.
Feed grease adding equipment can be divided into three types according to the measurement method, flowmeter measurement type, weighing measurement type and metering pump measurement type. The working principles of these three feed grease adding equipment are mostly the same. They are composed of source oil and filtering part, source oil input part, oil quantity metering, oil output pressurization, compressed air filtration and pressure regulation, and oil-gas mixed spraying. The difference is the two parts of oil metering and oil output pressurization.
The component composition of the feed grease adding equipment is slightly different due to the different working principles (the sequence and name of the arrangement). Taking the flow meter type feed grease adding equipment process as an example, it is divided into 7 parts: source oil filtration, oil input, Oil tank, oil output, oil metering, air source modulation and spraying. The working process is as follows: different types of feed oil from the oil depot pass through the solenoid valve, filtered by the filter, measured by the flow meter, pumped into the oil tank by the gear pump, and then stirred evenly by the agitator.
When refueling is needed, the solenoid valve and the gear pump are opened at the same time, the oil is filtered by the filter, the pressure is adjusted by the overflow valve, the flow meter is measured, and it enters the air atomization nozzle. The compressed air from the factory is filtered through the oil and water filter. , The pressure is adjusted to the proper pressure by the double pressure reducing valve, the compressed air enters the air atomizing nozzle, is mixed with the oil, and is sprayed. The manual ball valve is used for cleaning the oil tank and maintenance, and another is used for emptying the pipeline or connecting compressed air to empty the pipeline.
During the operation of the feed grease adding equipment, some components are prone to failure due to vibration, electromagnetic fields, impurities in the oil, dust in the installation place, humidity and the characteristics of the components themselves.
2. Equipment installation
(1) Choice of installation location
The installation position of the equipment refers to the installation position of the whole machine and the relative position of the equipment and the refueling point. The installation of feed grease adding equipment should take into account the location of the oil depot and the suction power of the high-pressure gear oil pump. Generally, the oil depot is located on the ground, and the head of the high-pressure gear oil pump is high, but the suction power is not high. Therefore, feed grease adding equipment is generally installed in the ground room, and the ground should be level. At least 0.5m away from the wall around the equipment to facilitate inspection and maintenance of the equipment. The output oil is delivered to the refueling point through seamless steel pipes. The compressed air modulation device is installed near the refueling point.
For metering pump type or flow meter type, these devices must be installed horizontally. Before installing the flowmeter, clean up debris, debris, welding slag, stones, dust, etc. in the pipeline. It is recommended to install a 5μm mesh filter upstream to block liquid droplets and sand. The flowmeter must be installed horizontally on the pipeline (the pipeline is inclined within 50). The axis of the flowmeter should be concentric with the pipeline axis during installation, and the flow direction should be the same. The upstream pipeline length of the flowmeter should have a straight pipe section of equal diameter not less than 2D.
It is recommended if the installation site allows The upstream straight pipe is 20D and the downstream is 5D. The inner diameter of the upstream and downstream piping at the installation point of the flowmeter must be the same as that of the flowmeter. There is no strong electromagnetic interference and heat radiation in the installation place. The flowmeter should be grounded reliably and cannot be shared with the ground wire of the strong current system.
(2) Humidity and temperature
Feed grease adding equipment is a mechatronics equipment. Steel parts are prone to rust in a humid environment, and electrical appliances are prone to short circuits or malfunctions. Therefore, the environment where the equipment is installed should not be too humid, and the relative humidity should be less than 60%. Temperature has little effect on the equipment, although the grease will condense at low temperatures and block the pipeline. However, the equipment itself has a heating and heat preservation device to ensure that the grease will not condense due to low temperature. The high temperature in summer has no effect on the operation of the equipment.
It mainly affects the metering part of the equipment. Whether it is a load cell, a flow meter or a metering pump, when the direction and frequency of the on-site vibration is the same as the force direction of the load cell, it is easy to resonate and produce false weighing. If the vibration is too strong, the weighing error will be large. The metering pump is also a kind of precision metering device. Generally, pulsating diaphragm pumps are used. Excessive vibration intensity will also affect the work of the metering pump, thereby affecting the metering accuracy. Therefore, the equipment installation site should minimize vibration, such as adding a cushion between the equipment and the foundation, and securing the equipment.
Dust easily adheres to the surface of the equipment and affects the appearance of the equipment. Dust is also easy to penetrate through the leaky seal of the oil tank and fall into the oil, resulting in the blockage of narrow passages such as nozzles.
To sum up, the equipment is installed on the ground on the first floor, the ground should be level, the working environment should be low dust, low vibration, and humidity below 60%.
(5) Use and maintenance of equipment
Only qualified personnel trained before the job can use the equipment. Before use, be familiar with the characteristics of various components and the correct use method. In use, use and maintain the equipment in strict accordance with the operating procedures, and properly handle the abnormal phenomena that occur. If you can't handle it, the maintenance staff will handle it. If the maintenance staff can't handle it, you should contact the supplier in time and have a professional deal with.
3. Electrical appliances
Electrical appliances are responsible for equipment operation control and are the command system of equipment. If it has a problem, the device is paralyzed.
(1) Electronic control software
The problem that sometimes occurs in the electronic control software is that the zero drift and the data are cleared after power failure.
① Zero drift. There are two reasons for the zero drift. On the one hand, the electronic circuit is in use. The aging of electronic components and the vibration of the production site cause poor contact of the line contacts. Over time, electrical parameters will change, resulting in zero drift. On the other hand, if the load cell is loose and shakes during production vibration, zero drift will also occur.
②The data will be cleared after power off. In the case of sudden power failure or other power interference, the parameters are cleared, and the relevant data is usually backed up. In case of failure, the backup data is reloaded.
(2) Electrical hardware
Electrical hardware refers to oil pump, sensor (weighing, oil level), relay, solenoid valve, electric contact pressure gauge, PLC, touch screen, etc. Among them are the metering devices, oil level sensors, relays, solenoid valves, and loose electrical contacts.
① Oil pump. The following aspects should be considered when selecting an oil pump: The output pressure should be 50% to 80% greater than the pressure required at the nozzle to overcome the pressure loss along the pipeline caused by the oil flow. It is best to choose a constant pressure pump, so that the spray pressure can be guaranteed when the flow is adjusted, and the spraying effect can be guaranteed. The output flow rate should be greater than 30% to 50% of the required flow rate at the nozzle to offset the pressure regulating diversion. Try to choose the motor and pump to form an integrated type, avoid making the connection between the pump and the motor by yourself, avoiding the impact of performance due to errors such as connection coaxiality, and also facilitate production and assembly.
② Metering device. The metering device must be calibrated at the beginning of installation and during use.
The measuring element of the weighing type feed adding grease equipment is a weighing sensor. Some load cells use hanging electronic sensors, and some use hanging electronic sensors. Generally, it is installed at 3 points. One end of the sensor is connected to the lifting lug of the oil tank, and the other end is connected to the equipment frame. After the equipment is installed, it is necessary to calibrate the load cell and the weighing instrument. The calibration is to calibrate with a standard weight or a standard weight of liquid. After the equipment has been used for a period of time, due to temperature, vibration and other reasons, the weighing zero point has shifted and should be recalibrated.
The metering device of the metering pump type feed adding grease equipment is a metering pump. The metering pump provides qualified oil flow and pressure for the nozzle. Considering corrosion resistance, a diaphragm pump is selected. The rated pressure is 30% more than the sum of the elevation pressure and the pressure along the installation site. In order to prevent the metering pump pressure from being too high due to the blockage of the pipeline and the failure of the electric contact pressure gauge, which would damage the metering pump and pipeline components, an overflow valve was added to the metering pump outlet pipeline.
Once the pipeline is blocked, the pump pressure exceeds With the set overflow pressure, the oil returns to the tank through the overflow pipe. When the pipeline is empty and start to fill with oil, the gas in the pipe should be discharged through the exhaust hole of the pump, and the pipeline should be connected from the exhaust hole of the pump back to the fuel tank. The population is the highest point of the fuel tank. Prevent oil from flooding people.
The metering device of the flow meter type feed grease adding equipment is a flow meter. The accuracy of the flow meter is directly related to the accuracy of grease addition. At present, the common flow meters on the market include differential pressure flow meters, positive displacement flow meters, float flow meters, turbine flow meters, vortex flow meters, electromagnetic flow meters, and ultrasonic flow meters. Rotary piston flowmeter is generally selected. It is a positive displacement flowmeter. It is suitable for small flow measurement, is not affected by viscosity, has high measurement accuracy, and the basic error is ±1%. It is equipped with a photoelectric pulse converter. Automatic measurement control in the batching system.
Attention should be paid when using: the selection should be within the specified flow range, and the hose should be installed to prevent the pipeline from being near high temperature to reduce its strength, and at the same time, do not fold. Plastic pipes will naturally age during use, their strength will decrease, and they are easy to break. At this time, plastic pipes must be purchased according to the original material and specifications. When replacing the pipe, the nozzle must be cut flat and inserted into the quick connector. Only after the pressure test does not leak.
Pipe joints are used to connect the oil circuit and gas circuit. The pipe joints of the oil circuit include: threaded connection, flange connection and live joint connection. The threaded connection is relatively simple, but limited by the positioning direction of the connecting piece, it is not easy to tighten; the flange connection must be positioned first and then welded, which is also more troublesome; while the union connection is not affected by the positioning and is easy to operate, so it should be preferred. In use, the degree of sealing can be increased by tightening the nut. Compressed air pipeline connectors generally use quick-plug connectors, which are easy to plug and unplug, and the sealing effect is good. Its materials are stainless steel, plastic and metal plating. As plastics are easy to age, and the plating is easy to rust once the coating is damaged, it is best to use stainless steel.
When using the pipe joint, pay attention to the correct insertion and removal of the pipe, especially when removing the pipe. Push the sealing head inward to the end and then pull it out. Do not pull out hard, which will damage the joint (Figure 1). When the pipe joint leaks during use, it must be replaced. When replacing, be sure to use the same material and specification.
④Compressed air modulation
The compressed air used for spraying should be equipped with a filter device and a pressure regulating device to prevent the air from the compressor from carrying the oil and water into the feed oil. Generally, triple pieces are used, with a compact structure and easy installation and operation. Regularly check whether the filter is blocked, whether the filtered oil and water are removed normally, and whether the pressure is normal.
⑤ Spray device
The nozzle sprays the feed oil from the refueling pump onto the feed. When the nozzle is used on the mixer, use the ordinary nozzle; when used to spray oil on the feed pellets, use the air atomizing nozzle. In order to spray uniformly, the spray shape should be rectangular or flat. When selecting the nozzle, the flow rate should be slightly larger than the required flow rate under the specified spray pressure. In order to adjust the flow, an adjustable flow nozzle should be used.
(3) The principle of substituting parts for maintenance
Electrical components. The technical parameters must be consistent. If the same technical parameters are not available, the higher-level technical parameters should be selected to ensure the ability to withstand voltage and overcurrent.
Mechanical. It is best if you can buy the original. If you can't buy the original, the main consideration is the flow rate and rated withstand voltage. The flow rate and rated withstand voltage are higher than the original rated value, and corrosion resistance is also considered.
Due to the presence of dust, moisture, oil, etc. in the workshop, oil dust will adhere to the surface of the equipment, which requires frequent cleaning. If oil and dust pollute the electrical connector, it will cause poor conduction. Oil dust pollutes the surface of the instrument and affects the observation. Fouling on the nozzle will also affect the spray, so it should be cleaned regularly.
The grease adding equipment of the animal feed processing line should be installed strictly in accordance with the regulations (location, temperature and humidity, vibration, dust), and the operators should be trained before use and qualified. In use, the operator should operate strictly according to the requirements, especially regularly check whether the pressure, filtration, spraying, and weighing devices are normal, whether the electrical component joints are normal, and regularly remove dust and filter sediments. If problems are found, follow the instructions Check and repair. If parts are damaged, replace them with parts with the same specifications as the original materials. If not, replace them with parts of higher quality. If it cannot be solved, contact the supplier and do not disassemble and repair it at will, so as not to cause bigger problems.
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