Chicken feed formula design for layer and breeding hens in chicken feed making plant
Layers can be divided into three stages: brooding period, rearing period and laying period. As the age increases, energy concentration and protein levels decrease.
① 0-6 weeks old is the brooding period. During this period, the nutritional needs of chickens are high-energy, high-protein, and complete nutrition. When designing the chicken layer feed formula, feeds with low crude fiber content, high nutritional value, good quality and easy to digest should be selected. Add necessary anti-coccidial drugs and anti-pullaria drugs according to the breeding method and the source of the chicks.
②The growing period is from 6 weeks of age to the start of labor. As a laying hen, it must not be overweight before laying. In order to control the growth rate, the nutritional index value of the diet should be relatively low. During this period, the metabolizable energy level per 1 kg of diet was 11.72 MJ for 7 to 14 weeks of age, and 11.30 MJ for 15 to 20 weeks of age. The crude protein level should not be too high. The protein levels at 7-14 weeks and 15-20 weeks are 16% and 12%, respectively.
Under the condition of amino acid balance, the chicken feed protein level can be reduced to 10%. The calcium level in the diet of growing chickens should not be too high. When the egg production rate reaches 5% 2 weeks before the start of laying, the calcium level can be increased to 2%; if the egg production exceeds 5%, the calcium content can be increased to the corresponding level . The feed for growing chickens can use agricultural and sideline products, such as bran, distiller's grains, powder residue, and green feed and other raw materials with high crude fiber content and low energy value to control weight.
③Laying period. This period can be divided into three stages according to the egg production rate: the egg production rate is less than 65%, the egg production rate is 65-80%, and the egg production rate is greater than 80%. A two-stage system can also be used in production, that is, the egg production rate is greater than 80% and less than 80%. During the peak period of egg production, attention should be paid to the stability of the feed mix and the crude protein content.
According to feeding standards, the crude protein level should be 16.5%, and if necessary, it can be increased to more than 17%. The level of calcium in the diet should reach 3.3 to 3.5%, and the available phosphorus should reach 0.33 to 0.35%. In addition, the raw materials of compound feed should be of good quality and rich in nutrients, and indicators such as essential amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements can be appropriately improved. After the peak period of egg production, the level of dietary protein should not drop too fast, and limit its feed intake to 90-95% of the free feed intake.
The calcium level should be adjusted appropriately. After 40 weeks of age and when the temperature in midsummer exceeds 35°C, the calcium level can be increased from 3.3 to 3.69% to 3.7 to 3.99%, but not more than 4%. The feed formula for laying hens should be designed according to the production level of the chicken on the one hand, and on the other hand, the breed of the chicken (such as light breed, brown egg breed, etc.), egg size, eggshell thickness and environmental climate And other factors. Light white-shell layer feed and medium-size brown-shell layer feed can be used in common, but special attention should be paid to the supply level of protein, pyridoxine, vitamin B1 and vitamin E in brown-shell layer, and at the same time provide sufficient methionine and cysteine acid. Avoid the use of rapeseed cypress in the brown-shell layer feed as much as possible, so as not to affect the egg quality.
About breeders feed formula
The nutritional requirements of breeding hens in China's feeding standards (for eggs) are the same as those of laying hens, while the requirements of vitamin B6, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and trace elements iron, zinc, and manganese in the Japanese and NRC feeding standards Both are slightly taller than laying hens. Compared with commercial layer feed, the content of zinc, iron, copper, vitamin B1, biotin, folic acid and pyridoxine in meat breeder feed is increased by 30-50%, iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin K, Vitamin E and riboflavin should be increased by 1 time, pantothenic acid should be increased by 3.5 times, and other nutritional indicators are the same as commercial layer feed.
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