How to prepare feed for laying hens in winter?
Winter layer hen farmers are affected by many factors such as breeding technology, heat preservation and cold protection, sunlight, ventilation facilities, environmental conditions, etc., resulting in varying degrees of egg production decline in layer flocks. Today, let's talk about the adjustment plan of the laying hen feed formula in winter, look at how to adjust the laying hen feed during the peak egg production period in winter!
1. The adjustment of the winter layer formula should follow the following principles:
(1) Energy adjustment
When the ambient temperature is too low, the maintenance requirements, feed intake, and nutrient conversion efficiency of the laying hens will change, and corresponding adjustments should be made when designing the formula. The suitable temperature for adult laying hens is about 18-25℃. Taking the suitable temperature as the standard, the average free feed intake of chickens will increase by 1.5% when the ambient temperature drops by 1℃, and the maintenance requirement will also increase by 1.5%, although the ratio is increased. The same, but the maintenance energy needs about 60%-70% of the total energy needs, and the energy needed for production accounts for 30%-40%. In this way, the total energy intake is increased relative to the normal temperature, so can we appropriately reduce the energy concentration? The answer is no. Studies have shown that the energy consumption of production in cold environments has increased to a certain extent. In addition, the water content of energy feed such as corn in winter is higher than usual, and its dosage cannot be reduced. Therefore, the correct way to maintain energy in winter is to keep the energy constant or slightly increase. .
(2) Adjustment of protein and other nutrients
As mentioned earlier, in the low temperature season, the feed intake of laying hens has increased. That is to say, the intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins will also increase correspondingly when the formula is unchanged. When meeting the normal growth and production of laying hens, there is a certain degree of waste, especially the protein in the feed. Therefore, from a cost point of view, the concentration in the batch can be reduced accordingly, and the protein is generally lowered by 0.4-0.6%. That is to say, the protein content in the original feed is 15.8%-16.3%, which can be adjusted to 15.4%-15.7%, but in order to ensure the production performance of laying hens, other substances such as calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, etc. can be kept unchanged or slightly increase.
(3) Application of special additives
Laying hens love temperature and are afraid of cold. In cold and low temperature seasons, physical fitness and production performance decrease, material consumption increases, egg production decreases, and respiratory infections such as colds are easily contracted. Vitamin C has anti-infection, detoxification and anti-stress effects, can increase chickens' resistance to cold and diseases, prevent infectious diseases, and increase egg production. Adding 5 grams of vitamin C to every 100 kilograms of chicken feed can reduce feed consumption and increase egg production.
The low temperature in winter will cause the performance of the ovaries of laying hens to decrease and the production of eggs will decrease. Adding vitamin E to layer feed can enhance ovarian metabolism and increase egg production rate.
Vitamin D can promote the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus, and promote the formation of bones and eggshells. The main source is sunlight, and the skin can produce vitamin D after being exposed to ultraviolet rays in the sun. In winter, there is little sunlight and caged chickens cannot receive outdoor sunlight. It is important to supplement vitamin D in time.
It can promote the growth and development of bones and the formation of eggshells. Chickens lack calcium and lay soft-shelled eggs in mild cases. In severe cases, they may twitch their toes, which is life-threatening. In winter, the temperature is low and the sunshine is short, and the demand of calcium for chickens increases accordingly. It is extremely important to supplement the calcium for chickens. The daily calcium requirement for laying hens is 2.7 g-3.4 g. Calcium source feed should be selected: ① Stone powder, namely limestone powder, is natural calcium carbonate, generally containing 38% pure calcium, which is the cheapest mineral feed for supplementing calcium. ② Shell powder, containing 96% calcium carbonate, equivalent to 38% calcium, the effect of fast calcium supplementation is better.
(4) Effective feeding method
It is cold in winter and chickens need a lot of heat. Chickens should be fed with hot food and warm water. At least the feed should be controlled at room temperature for feeding. Adding an appropriate amount of salt to the chicken drinking water can increase appetite and water consumption and increase egg production. You can also add mineral sands to the feed to improve the digestibility of chickens. It is also possible to add pellets at night to prevent night hunger, so as to increase the energy intake of laying hens and improve the ability to keep out the cold, and maintain a higher level of egg production.
2. Recommended feed formula for laying hens with different growth cycles
(1) Homemade feed formula for laying hens 1 to 3 weeks old:
Corn 60%, millet 5%, sorghum 4%, wheat bran 5%, soybean cake 8%, fish meal 8%, bone and meat meal 3%, blood meal 5%, stone meal 1.5%, salt 0.3%, appropriate amount of additives.
(2) Feed formula for laying hens at the age of 4 to 6 weeks:
Corn 60%, sorghum 4%, wheat bran 6%, bean cake 15%, peanut cake 3%, cotton cake 2%, blood meal 3%, fish meal 5%, shell meal 1%, bone meal 0.7%, salt 0.3 %.
(3) Feed ratio of 7 to 14 weeks old laying hens:
Corn 60%, sorghum 6%, barley 12%, soybean cake 10%, fish meal 3%, shell meal 0.7%, locust leaf meal 5%, bone meal 2%, salt 0.3%, appropriate amount of additives.
(4) Feed ratio of 15-25 weeks old chicken:
Corn 65%, barley 5%, wheat bran 15%, bean cake 7%, cotton cake 2%, fish meal 2%, shell meal 1.5%, bone meal 2%, salt 0.3%, appropriate amount of additives.
(5) Feed formula for raising chickens when the egg production rate is 50%:
60% corn, 6% wheat bran, 6% dried sweet potatoes, 18% soybean cake, 6% fish meal, 2.7% bone meal, 0.3% salt, 0.1% methionine, and appropriate amount of additives.
(6) Feed ratio when the egg production rate is between 55% and 80%:
Maize 57%, dried sweet potato 5%, wheat bran 3%, bean cake 20%, cotton cake 2%, peanut cake 2%, fish meal 7%, bone meal 3%, salt 0.3%, and appropriate amount of additives.
(7) Feed formula for peak period when the egg production rate is above 80%:
Corn 52%, sorghum 4%, wheat bran 4%, bean cake 20%, cotton cake 4%, peanut cake 4%, fish meal 4%, locust leaf meal 3.5%, bone meal 3.5%, salt 0.3%, additives Right amount.
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