Wheat straw can be used as feed for cattle and sheep
1. Characteristics of wheat straw
Wheat straw can be eaten by cattle and sheep and can be fed as feed, but the nutritional content of wheat straw nutrition is insufficient. Generally, the nutritional value of stalks is that leaves are higher than sheaths and stalks, but wheat stalks are different. Since the stalks of wheat stalks account for more than 50% of the whole plant, the leaves and leaf sheaths only account for about 1/4, so wheat The nutrition of straw depends on the stem.
From top to bottom of wheat straw, the crude protein and soluble matter (100% neutral detergent fiber) content of the stalks, leaves, and sheaths gradually decreased, but the acid detergent fiber and lignin gradually increased, while the high fiber content and high lignification degree It is the nutritional limiting factor of straw feed. Therefore, from top to bottom, the nutritional value of wheat straw gradually decreases.
Wheat straw can be used directly as feed for herbivores, but the palatability is poor and the feed intake is small.
2. Manufacturing method of wheat straw feed
What needs to be reminded is that no matter what kind of treatment method, the wheat straw itself has insufficient nutrients, and other feeds need to be added for proportioning. But using the following method, adding wheat straw feed to the feed formula will indeed greatly reduce the cost of feed and increase the profitability of your feed factory or breeding plant.
(1) Production technology of wheat straw ammoniated feed
Wheat straw ammoniated feed production technology After the wheat is harvested every year, a lot of straw is produced. After the straw is ammoniated, it can be used to feed cattle and sheep. The widely used methods are: stacking method, cellar (pool) method, ammoniated kang method and ammoniated bag method. There are two main methods of ammoniation:
① Ammonia pond ammoniation method. The specific approach is:
a. Choose a place where the sun is strong, leeward, the terrain is high, the soil is hard, the groundwater level is low, and it is easy to make, feed and manage. The shape of the pool can be rectangular or circular. The size and capacity of the pond depend on the amount of ammoniated straw, and the amount of ammoniated straw depends on the type and quantity of livestock. Generally, each cubic meter of pond can hold about 100 kg of chopped air-dried straw. A cow weighing 200 kg needs 1.5-2.0 tons of straw per year. After digging the pool, lay the bottom with bricks or stones, build the walls and cement the surface.
b. Crush or cut the straw into 1.5-2.0 cm segments.
c. 3-5% urea is mixed with warm water to make a solution. The amount of warm water depends on the moisture content of the straw. Generally, the moisture content of straw is 12%, which is about 30 kg per 100 kg of straw.
d. Sprinkle the prepared urea solution evenly on the straw and stir while sprinkling, or evenly spray the urea solution once with a layer of straw and install it while stepping on it.
e. After filling, cover the pool mouth with a thin plastic, and cover it with soil around it.
② Ammonia method of plastic bag.
Plastic bags are generally 2.5 meters long and 1.5 meters wide. The requirements for plastic bags are non-toxic polyethylene films with a thickness of more than 0.12 mm. Double-layer plastic bags are best. Spray the cut straw with the prepared aqueous urea solution (equivalent to 4-5% urea of straw air-drying mass dissolved in clean water equivalent to 40-50% of straw mass), fill the plastic bag and seal Keep the bag tightly in a dry place in Xiangyang. During storage, it should be checked frequently. If you smell ammonia at the mouth of the bag, you should tighten it again. If the plastic bag is damaged, you should seal the letter with tape.
The straw can be fed after being ammoniated for a certain period of time. The length of the ammoniation time depends on the temperature. The temperature is 20-30 ℃, it takes 7-14 days, and the temperature is higher than 30 ℃, only 5-7 days. The quality of ammoniated straw is evaluated before feeding special animals. Generally speaking, the color of ammoniated straw should be apricot yellow, with a paste flavor and pungent ammonia smell. If it is found that most of the ammoniated straw has become moldy, it cannot be used to feed livestock.
After the straw is ammoniated, the crude protein is increased from 3% to 4% to about 8%, the digestibility of organic matter is increased by 10 to 20 percentage points, and it contains a variety of amino acids, which can replace 30% to 40% of concentrated feed. It can also kill wild grass seeds and prevent mildew. Therefore, ammoniated straw feeds sheep, cattle, etc., and the effect is very good. Straw can also be crushed into straw bran and used as animal feed.
(2) Processing method of quicklime dusting
Adjust the moisture content of the chopped straw to 30%-40%, and then evenly spread the quicklime powder on the wet straw to make it sealed in a wet state for 6 to 8 weeks, and then take it out to feed the livestock. The amount of lime is 6% of the dry straw weight. It can also be mixed with 100 kg of straw plus 3-6 kg of raw right ash, put the appropriate amount of water to make the straw soaked, and then keep it for 3-4 days and nights in a humid state, and then it can be taken out and fed. Feeding livestock with straw treated in this way can make the digestibility of straw reach the level of medium grass.
Advantages and disadvantages of lime treatment: Although the effect of lime treatment on straw is not as good as sodium hydroxide, it has the advantages of wide raw material sources, low cost, and no need to rinse with clean water. It can also supplement the calcium in the straw. The digestibility of straw after lime treatment can be increased by 15%-20%, and the feed intake of livestock can be increased by 20%-30%. After the lime treatment, the calcium content in the straw is increased, but the phosphorus content is very low. The ratio of calcium and phosphorus is 4:1 to 9:1, which is extremely unbalanced, so pay attention to supplement when feeding this straw feed phosphorus. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 2:1.
(3) Use wheat straw pellet making machine
It can be processed into grass powder with a high capacity wheat straw pulverizer, and it can be evenly injected into the wheat straw pellet mill machine after mixing a certain amount of concentrate and water to press the wheat straw pellets.