Processing technology of crop straw as raw material for animal feed
Traditional food production mainly uses the seeds and fruits of crops. Most of the straws are discarded and burned on the spot, which not only wastes resources, but also pollutes the environment. The development of crop straw feed processing technology is of great significance for making full use of agricultural natural resources, promoting the development of ecological agriculture in China and improving the efficiency of agricultural breeding.
Under natural conditions, most crop stalks have low crude protein quality, high crude fiber content, and contain lignin that is not easily digested by livestock. The nitrogen-free extract content is high, mainly hemicellulose and polyuronic acid. Some straws have rough texture, poor palatability and low livestock and poultry feed intake. However, after the straws are treated with silage, ammoniation, biochemical fermentation and other methods, they can degrade lignin, reduce crude fiber content, and improve nutritional value and utilization Rate, digestibility, enhance palatability.
Test data show that the crude protein content of corn stalks can be increased from 3.3% to 4.42% to 11.8% to 13.46% after being chopped and ammonified. The crude protein can be increased to 13.82% and crude fiber from 33.4% after biochemical fermentation. Reduce to 16.72%. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber in the straw feed after processing and fermentation can reach the same level as that of high-quality forage, and the feeding speed of cattle and sheep is increased by 40% to 43% , Feed intake increased by 20% to 40%.
Many agricultural researchers have devoted themselves to the research and development of crop straw feed for many years, and have achieved many results, and their technology and mechanical equipment have also been continuously improved. At present, the processing technology and mechanical equipment of crop straw feed mainly include the following:
First cut the straw into 10 cm long pieces, then smash them into 2 to 3 cm long, and place them layer by layer in the silage, and add appropriate amounts of corn flour and wheat husks according to the energy feed requirements of various livestock , Rice bran and other concentrates, each layer is repeatedly stomped, and then sealed with thin mud, can be fed after 30 days, and the storage period can be stored for half a year.
The processing facilities are mainly crushers. The harvesting method in the south is mostly manual picking of ears, harvesting and transporting them back to mechanical chopping. In the North and North China, there are more suitable corn stalk recovery combine harvesters, which can complete the operations of picking ears, packing, and chopping and stacking straw in one time.
2. Ammonia treatment.
The nutritional value of straw feed can be improved by ammoniating. The following points should be paid attention to during the ammoniating treatment:
(1) The straw can be crushed into straw powder (similar to coarse bran).
(2) The depth of the ammoniated storage cellar is not more than 2 meters, and about 75 kg of ammoniated feed per cubic meter. The urea configuration ratio is: feed: water: urea=100: (30～40): (3.5～4.5), spray the configured urea solution in proportion to each 30 cm spread of straw powder, and each layer is compacted. When the straw powder exceeds When the pit opening is parabolic, it is fully compacted and then topped with plastic film, and finally compacted with wet soil.
Open the cellar and take as much material as you need to feed, and seal the cellar mouth tightly after use. The ammoniated feed taken out must be aired for 1 to 2 days before being fed to livestock. At present, a special straw ammoniating machine has been developed and produced in China. This kind of machine fibrillates fibrous material longitudinally through rubbing and impact, and dissolves lignin, hydrolyzes and degrades hemicellulose through the action of synchronous chemical treatment agent, and improves the digestibility of straw. The nitrogen content of the treated straw increased 1.4 times, the digestibility of dry matter and crude fiber reached 70% and 64.4%, respectively, the feed intake could be increased by 48%, and the milk production could be increased by 20.7%.
3. Biochemical fermentation treatment.
After the straw is pulverized by a pulverizer, a fermentation modifier is added, mixed evenly, filled into a plastic bag, compacted in a water tank or a cement tank, and sealed to soften and mature. Biochemically, it turns into a substance similar to the waste residue produced by the brewing plant, that is, "ferment bran". In the process of biochemical fermentation, straw can effectively degrade crude fiber, and undergo biochemical conversion to synthesize amino acids, fatty acids, bacterial proteins and vitamins, producing special flavors such as ferment and acid, and improve the palatability and nutritional value of straw. The biochemical fermentation feed also contains a variety of beneficial intestinal microorganisms and a variety of antibiotic-producing strains, which have a therapeutic effect on common respiratory diseases of livestock and poultry, and can improve disease prevention immunity and increase digestion.
The straw fodder treated by biochemical fermentation can be directly mixed into livestock feed and poultry feed for feeding, or it can be processed into complete feed pellets by a small feed processing unit line, and the effect is better.
4. Processing technology of straw mixed pellet feed.
In the past, straw feed was generally processed into powder and then mixed into the feed for feeding. There were defects such as inconvenient feeding, poor palatability, picky eating by livestock, and low utilization rate. With the advent and popularization of new small pellet machines, it is now possible to conveniently process powder feed or pellet feed. The price of this small pellet feed processing machine is only about 3,000 yuan. It can be powered by lighting. The powder feed is gelatinized at high temperature and discharged from the die hole under the pressure of the roller to make pellets. The pellets can be adjusted easily. The size of the particle size and its simple structure are suitable for use by rural farmers and small professional feed factories.
Straw feed has many advantages after being processed into animal pellet feed.
(1) During the animal feed pellet line production process, under the pressure of the machine itself, the temperature can reach 80～10℃, which can make the starch in the feed mature to a certain degree, produce a strong fragrance, and the feed texture is hard, which is suitable for pigs, cattle and sheep. The gnawing biological characteristics of the feed improve the palatability of the feed and make it easier to eat.
(2) The granule formation process can make the pancreatic enzyme resistance factor in grains and beans denature; reduce the adverse effects on digestion, can kill all kinds of parasite eggs and other pathogenic microorganisms; reduce all kinds of parasites and digestive system disease.
(3) Convenient feeding, high utilization rate, easy to control feeding amount, saving feed, clean and sanitary. Especially in fish farming, because fish pellet feed dissolves very slowly in water, it will not be submerged by sediment, which can reduce waste.