Causes and prevention of common dairy cow feed
Many dairy cattle breeders use various local grass, vegetables, agricultural and sideline products, and industrial by-products as cattle feed to reduce feeding costs. Sometimes due to improper feed handling, dairy cows get sick, reduce milk production and quality, and even die. Several cases of dairy cow diseases caused by feed are introduced as follows.
1. Moldy corn causes disease
When corn is moldy, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium, etc. multiply and produce a large amount of mycotoxins. Cows will get sick after eating. The symptoms are weakened or stopped ruminating, corneal turbidity, yellow mucosa, diarrhea, weight loss, and some There were congestion spots around the eyes and nose and the inside of thighs, and even confusion and excitement, leading to fainting and death.
①Treatment: Immediately stop feeding the feed containing moldy corn, add water to administer 400-600 9 of magnesium sulfate, intravenously inject 500-1000 mL of glucose normal saline, and 50 mL of 40% urotropine.
②Prevention: The moisture content of corn should be controlled below 12.5% and the storage period should not be too long; do not feed moldy corn; for moldy corn, use 10% quicklime water to soak, remove the soaking liquid Used as feed.
2. Rotten sweet potato causes disease
The sweet potato with black spot disease and sweet potato noodles made from it contain mycotoxins, and cows are also prone to disease after eating. The symptoms are listlessness, weakened or stopped rumination; constipation, feces dry and hard and bloody; body temperature is mostly normal, but a few rises above 40°C; breathing is urgent and difficult, and the heartbeat is fast and weak. In severe cases, coma and cramps are present death.
①Treatment: Immediately stop feeding sweet potato, yangying and sweet potato noodles infected with black spot disease. You can use raw mung bean 5009 plus honey 5009, once orally; or use 0.1%-0.2% potassium permanganate solution 2 000 mL, orally; when constipation, take 400-600 9 magnesium sulfate orally; intravenous bloodletting 1000 mL, At the same time, intravenous injection of 25% glucose 500~1000mL, normal saline 1000mL, 10% sodium bicarbonate 10mL, 5% sodium bicarbonate 250~500mL, 5% vitamin C 40~60mL.
②Prevention: Don't feed the sweet potato infected with black spot disease to dairy cows, even after roasting and cooking. Poisonous sweet potatoes should be buried deep and concentrated, and the infected dried melons should also be picked out when making starch and making wine.
3. Rotten cabbage causes disease
Cabbage, various wild vegetables, and weeds contain nitrate, which will be oxidized to nitrite after simmering, fever, and decay. Cows will get sick after eating, manifested as vomiting, salivation, and difficulty breathing. Gray to cyanotic, body temperature dropped, irritated, and convulsed on the ground until death.
①Treatment: Stop feeding vegetable feeds, and drink egg white and milk for mildly intoxicated patients; for severely ill patients, intravenously inject 150mL of 1%-2% melanin solution, 5% glucose 1000mL, and 10% sodium cyanate 20mL. If there is no medical condition, you can take 8 to 10 bottles of blue and black ink plus 1 to 1.5 times water.
②Prevention: Vegetable feed should be fed raw, not green vegetables or grasses that are decaying. The dishes that need to be cooked should be cooked and fed, and do not stay overnight.
4. Tender sorghum seedlings cause disease
The young corn seedlings and sorghum seedlings, especially the second crop of sorghum seedlings, contain more cyanogenic glycosides. After dairy cows eat this type of feed, the cyanogenic glycosides will be rapidly hydrolyzed in the body and become highly toxic. The hydrocyanic acid makes cows sick. After eating, cows show salivation, groaning, shortness of breath, difficulty in breathing, bitter almond smell in exhaled air, mucosal cyanosis, muscle spasm, and suffocation.
①Treatment: Stop feeding this type of feed. Immediately cut ear tips and tail tip bloodletting muscles, and inject 150-200mL of 1% melanin or intravenous injection of 10% sodium thiosulfate 1mL/k9 according to body weight; for those without medical conditions, administer 8-10 bottles of blue and black ink. Drink water afterwards.
②Prevention: young corn seedlings and sorghum seedlings are dried before feeding to the cows. In particular, two fresh sorghum seedlings cannot be used as feed for dairy cows.
5. Distillers grains cause disease
Distillers' grains contain acetic acid and alcohols, and long-term large-scale feeding can also make dairy cows sick. Dairy cows are sick with mental excitement, unsteady movements, flushing of mucous membranes, skin rashes under the abdomen and around the breasts, alternating constipation and diarrhea. Accompanied by abdominal pain, paralysis, and collapse.
①Treatment: oral administration of 1% baking soda solution or soy milk water 1500.2 000mL; intravenous injection of 5% dextrose normal saline 1500.2000mL. The skin with rash can be washed with 1% potassium permanganate or rubbed with 3% carbonated alcohol solution.
②Prevention: Control the amount of distiller's grains, dry grains should not exceed 10%, and fresh grains should not exceed 30%. It is forbidden to feed dairy cows with severely moldy distiller's grains, and for mildly moldy ones, they can be stirred with 1% to 2% lime water before feeding.
6. Diseases caused by soy sauce residue
Although the soy sauce residue contains nutrients such as crude protein, it also contains 7% to 8% salt. Therefore, dairy cows who eat soy sauce residues for a long time will have symptoms such as thirst, dehydration, gastroenteritis, oliguria or anuria, shortness of breath, fast fat/m, cyanosis of the mucous membrane, foaming in the mouth, twitching of the limbs, etc. , In severe cases, he was lethargic or collapsed and died.
①Treatment: Stop feeding salty feed such as soy sauce residue. Give plenty of water and add some brown sugar; castor oil 300-500mL (laxative): intravenous injection of 5% glucose 1000-2 000mL and 10% calcium chloride 150-200mL.
②Prevention: Soak the soy sauce residue with water to wash away the salt; control the amount of soy sauce residue (no more than 30% in the dairy cow's diet), and no more salt in the diet.
7. Cotton cake causes disease
Cotton leaves, cotton cakes, and cotton meal contain toxins such as gossypol. If continuously fed in large quantities, it will cause accumulated poisoning. Cows will experience loss of appetite, weakened or stopped ruminating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, mucus in the feces, and urine. Reddish brown, shortness of breath and other symptoms; some have visual disturbances, and pregnant cows often give birth to blind calves or abortion.
①Treatment: Replace forage. Oral laxatives in dairy cows with mild gastroenteritis. Such as sodium sulfate 100～150 9; in severe cases, oral anti-inflammatory and astringent agents, such as sulfamidine 30～409, tannin 20～25 9, 0.1% ferrous sulfate solution 7～15mL; oral lotus root powder plus brown sugar (protect stomach Intestinal mucosa).
②Prevention: The amount of cotton cake feed should not exceed 25% of the total dairy cow's ration. After feeding for 2 weeks, feed it at an interval of 1 week; and pay attention to adding energy mixture, vitamins, minerals and green to the ration. Feed to improve the tolerance and detoxification of milk to gossypol.
8. Sprouting potatoes cause disease
The germs, stems and leaves of potatoes contain a lot of solanine. Dairy cows will get sick if they eat the buds or potato stems. In mild cases, rumination will be weakened, salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dermatitis in the lower abdomen will appear; in severe cases, rumination will stop. , Cyanosis, from excitement to depression, paralysis of limbs, convulsions and convulsions, to death.
①Treatment: gastric lavage with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution, 500-2000 mL of 1% tannic acid solution for oral administration (treatment of gastroenteritis); for the severely ill, 5% glucose normal saline 1000-2000 mL, 10% safety Sodium 10mL.
②Prevention: When feeding cows with potatoes, remove the sprouting, green and rotten parts, cook them and discard the water, and feed them with other feeds; potato stems should be dried before feeding; pregnant cows should not be fed potatoes.