What should we learn from "No Antibiotics" management of American broiler chickens?
In different countries, the regulations on antibiotics in broiler and other breeding industries are different. For example, Australia allows the use of ionophore drugs, but does not allow the use of growth-promoting antibiotics (AGPs); in France, the use of ionophore drugs and AGPs is not allowed, but each batch of chickens in chicken farms can drink antibiotics twice; the United States Ionophore drugs and AGPs are not allowed, but chemical coccidiosis drugs are allowed.
The production of No Antibiotics Ever NAE in the United States increased from 13% in 2015 to 58% in 2019. In the United States, almost all scale chickens are raised on the ground. Compared with the previous traditional model, a series of changes have occurred after the implementation of the "No Antibiotics" action:
① The death elimination rate has increased by about 0.3%, but the overall survival rate can now reach 95 to 96%;
② The feed-to-meat ratio (FCR) has increased, different breeding plants are different, there is an increase of 0.01, there is an increase of 0.05;
③ Daily weight gain is slightly reduced, roughly 3 to 5 grams;
④ Especially coccidia and enteritis affect the intestinal health, which is a very big challenge;
⑤ The overall production cost increase is probably 10% to 15%.
1. Source tube purification
At the same time, various steps in the production of "no antibiotics" broiler chickens in the United States have taken different measures from breeding hatchery, nutrition, and chicken house environmental control, and are still under continuous development and continuous improvement. The egg laying rate of breeder eggs has not changed much. After the implementation of "no antibiotics", some types of registered antibiotics in hatcheries can no longer be used. Therefore, cleaner eggs are required, for example, the disinfection of eggs is strengthened, and the storage of eggs is avoided as much as possible. The water source of the hatchery has been strengthened, such as the detection of some single cell flora.
2. Feeding management
The government has no relevant regulations on the practice of "reducing antibiotics" on commercial broiler farms, mainly because the National Chicken Council (NCC) has issued relevant recommendations. For example, the average broiler weight may be less than 2 kg, and the feeding density shall be maintained at 32 kg/m2. The average broiler weight shall be 2 to 2.5 kg. The feeding density shall be maintained at approximately 37 kg/m2, at least 2.5 kg and the feeding density at approximately 40 kg/M². However, some experts recommend broiler chickens to be farmed without antibiotics. A single chicken can be added with an additional 0.005 square meters of space. The purpose is to reduce the incidence of coccidiosis and reduce the discharge of coccidiosis eggs by reducing the humidity of the bedding layer.
Generally speaking, the recommended emptying period for American broilers is 14 days or more. Of course, the longer the better. Most of the litter is a year of repeated use, and the average change is once a year, but each time a new litter is replaced, the production results are not good; the acidulant will be used when the challenge is large; reduce the light time and reduce the light The strength may be of some help to the chicken.
3. Chicken feed management
The production of "no antibiotics" broiler chicken feed pellet also requires higher raw material quality. The crushing particle size of the raw material, for example, the corn crushing particle size will be higher than before, which has a significant improvement effect on the entire intestine of the chicken and even the development of the mucosa of the chicken stomach. At the same time, as far as possible to reduce the overall powdering rate, it is required to control below 10%, and 30% before no resistance can also be accepted.
In addition, the chicken feed pellet granulation temperature of raw material for broodstock has been re-examined. For example, if it exceeds 74℃ or 75℃, it will affect the digestibility of amino acids. Nutrition practice mainly considers the use of easily digestible ingredients, especially in the first 28 days, and the chicken feed formula is also considered as much as possible. The enzyme preparations are especially phytase and xylase. If phytase is added to the feed, the influence of sodium ions should be considered.
Research and experience have found that pre-feeding is not very helpful for "no antibiotic", but pay attention to the actual calcium level in the feed, because excessive calcium can cause some enteritis. Soybean meal and other raw materials should also be considered. In fact, instead of worrying about too much calcium, but about too little phosphorus, especially in the early stage, you need to pay attention to the use of phytic acid phosphorus.
In the United States, the requirements and training of veterinarians are paid more attention. They are similar to the requirements and levels of human medicine. The overall technical level is relatively high. Not only do you really understand veterinary health care, but you also have a good understanding of on-site breeding management and ventilation. For coccidiosis control, you can try to use coccidiosis drugs (ionophores or chemical drugs) in combination with the coccidiosis vaccine (bio-shuttle) program, and then perform a second ball immunization.
The US broiler chickens are better "no antibiotic" and have a direct relationship with the close cooperation between government and enterprises (NPIP). NPIP has a project equivalent to the national poultry improvement plan, which will purify some diseases, especially the mycoplasma MS/MG purification. It is an important prerequisite for being "no antibiotic", and the cultural concept of American farming pays more attention to sustainable health. When you can not use medicine, try not to use it.
Biological safety should be stricter: first, biological elimination can be achieved, and unnecessary pathogenic microorganisms cannot be allowed to enter through people and things; second, biological reduction should be achieved, and if there are some unnecessary pathogenic microorganisms, try to reduce their infection; The third is biological isolation. If infection occurs, it should be isolated to prevent its spread.
5. Breeding management
What needs to be emphasized is on-site farming. For example, in China, some concepts and purposes of minimum ventilation are not very clear, and it must always be linked to temperature. In fact, the key purpose of minimum ventilation is to remove moisture. If the moisture is properly prepared, in fact ammonia and other gases will not accumulate.
6. Medication management
There are five principles of antibiotic use. The first is to have a correct diagnosis. The second is to have the right medicine. The third is to have the correct dosage, and the fourth is to have the correct course of treatment. Fifth, we must correctly minimize these broad-spectrum antibiotics, and then we must protect the sensitivity of these antibiotics. We cannot use everything at once, and choose the best effect. We should cherish these antibiotics that humans can use.
Judging from the current practice experience of broiler chickens in various countries around the world, they are actually very basic and basic. Therefore, we must return to the basics of raising chickens. For "antibiotic-free", the most important thing is to return to nutrition itself, good diet quality, scientific management, and reasonable immune management. Adopt all-round health management: source purification, biological safety, immune management, feeding management, feed management, medication management. Between "Illness" and "Wellness", there is actually a difference between "I" and "We". When "my action" becomes "our action", the flock will change from a diseased condition to a healthy one.