What problems should be paid attention to when breeding crabs?
River crab farming refers to the culture technology of river crabs. River crabs are the most important freshwater crabs. They have delicate meat, delicious taste, and extremely rich nutrition. Due to the strong adaptability of the crabs and the wide range of breeding, the scale of breeding has increased rapidly in recent years, bringing good economic benefits to farmers.
1. Location selection
Appropriate crab farms should have good water quality, adequate water sources, and convenient drainage. In order to ensure good air permeability, it should be mainly sandy or sandy soil. The water depth in the pond is controlled at about 1m, and the shallowest place should not be less than 10cm. The built pond has several mounds inside, planting aquatic plants such as reeds, wild rice, iris and so on.
On the one hand, these aquatic plants are a good source of nutrients for crabs to eat. On the other hand, it is helpful to consolidate the river embankment and avoid water leakage caused by digging holes.
2. Selection of crab seedlings
A good crab species is the key to high yield. At the same time, it is guaranteed that the physique is strong, the specifications are neat, and it must have a good adaptability. Select the good crab seedlings, first soak them in the pool for a few minutes, repeat the operation several times, observe the crab's ability to adapt to the water quality, and put it in when there is no adverse reaction.
At present, it is mainly based on the mixed culture of crab fry and other fish species. On the one hand, it provides a food source for crabs, on the other hand, it can improve the economic benefits of breeding.
3. Management measures
Crab feeding management, river crabs like fresh ingredients. For this reason, daily feed management prohibits those spoiled feeds that have been stored for a long time. At this stage, it is still necessary to put meat feed as the mainstay, and mix some nutritious vegetarian food in an appropriate amount, especially more plant-based feed, so as to ensure good water quality in the pond.
The number of materials used should be based on changes in climate temperature. In the hot summer, feeding can be done once or twice. The specific number depends on the weight of the river crab. If there are uneaten residues, they should be immediately salvaged and cleaned to avoid spoiling and affecting the water quality.
4. The experience of a crab farmer from China
At present, most of the bait for river crab farming also uses natural bait, especially animal bait, and most of them use "bait fish", and their disadvantages are increasingly prominent.
(1) Problems with current crab food
a. Bait fish not only destroys resources, the quality of crab feed is not guaranteed, and river crabs are prone to diseases;
b. The price is high, calculated according to the bait coefficient of river crab breeding, the average specification is three or two finished crabs, the cost of bait fish per catty of crabs is 10~18 yuan;
c. Crab farmers without bait fish have heard from merchants selling crab seedlings that high-priced purchases of so-called special “granular crab feed” with an invalid protein content of 18% to 20% are much lower than the 40% effective protein content of bean cake, causing crabs Eat not long, cheat crab farmers;
d. The so-called many kinds of crab feeds indicate that they contain active ingredients such as chitosan. In fact, it is impossible to contain effective "chitosan".
(2) Technical measures taken
a. Crab farming introduces benthic organisms such as snails, clams, and river mussels, usually 200 to 300 kg/mu of live snails in March, April, May, and June;
b. Increase the release of green prawns as supplementary feed for animal crab bait;
c. Breeding earthworms that the high-protein river crabs like to eat can promote the early shelling of river crabs and shorten the fattening period of river crabs;
d. Baked fish, bean cakes, corn, soybeans, potatoes, pumpkin, etc. are cooked and fed to river crabs, which not only kills pathogenic bacteria, but also improves the utilization of protein;
e. Homemade full-price pellet feed, using homemade crab feed pellets.
(3) Intensive cultivation of the last two shelling of commercial crabs
Enhancing nutrition of river crabs on the market is the key to improving efficiency, and the core is the quality and quantity of bait.
Three steps of "fine, coarse, and meat" are used throughout the river crab breeding season.
a.In the early stage (3, 4, 5, 6), the bait must be refined (bait fish + refined feed). The crab diet is 1% to 3% of the body weight, and the shelling is required three times;
b. the mid-July to August bait should be thick (green feed +30 % Fine feed), the diet of river crabs is about 5% of the body weight, and the shelling is required once;
c. in the later period of August to September, the animal bait is the main (not less than 60% of the amount of bait), the amount of bait is the crab 5% of body weight, requires shelling once.
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