Can fermented vegetable leaves be fed to cattle?
Around us, we often see all kinds of abandoned vegetable leaves and unsaleable vegetables around us, agricultural product processing places, vegetable plots, farmers' markets and other places, almost inexhaustible.
These discarded leafy vegetables have formed huge garbage especially in processing plants and farmers' markets. Some farms also use discarded vegetables and their stems and leaves (such as cabbage leaves, radish leaves, celery stems and their leaves, etc.) Feeding cattle, even after cooking and then put it for a long time before feeding, the amount of use is not large. However, if feeding too much may cause poisoning (such as cabbage, etc.), in severe cases can lead to death. This is because a toxic nitrite substance is produced.
Then, these discarded vegetable leaves cannot be directly fed to livestock and poultry in large quantities, throwing away and wasting will also pollute the environment, is there any way to achieve the best of both worlds? That is to feed cattle after fermentation, not only safe, but also nutrient release and improvement, palatability increase, detoxification, and reduce feed costs.
The fermented vegetable leaves can be used not only for cattle but also for pigs. It is suitable for most livestock and poultry.
1. How to feed cattle with fermented feed? (Taking sugarcane leaves as an example, the steps of fermenting sugarcane leaves with straw starter):
(1) Preparation of raw materials. The sugarcane leaves should be crushed or cut into small pieces or filaments as required, and the sugarcane leaves or vines fed to cattle should be crushed. Straw starter can be used alone, or the corn flour for feeding can be mixed and fermented together for better effect.
(2) Mixed raw materials. Humidity adjustment: Stir the prepared sugarcane leaf material evenly with water, the water content is controlled at about 60%, the judgment standard is: grasp the material by hand, see the water without dripping at the fingertips, it is appropriate to let go. The ratio of sugar cane leaves to water is approximately 1.5:1. A pack of straw starter feed can be equipped with 10 kg of fermentation broth, according to the ratio of 1 kg of fermentation broth fermentation straw 400 kg, use a new spray can (sprayer) to evenly spray the fermentation agent on the material, and spray while turning Pour it to make it even.
(3) Sealed fermentation. The above-mentioned mixed straw is filled and sealed, and a large amount of users can build fermentation tanks for batch processing. The fermentation time in summer and autumn is 5-8 days, and the fermentation time in winter is 10-15 days.
(4) Fermentation control. When used for feed fermentation, it is anaerobic fermentation. The fermentation process must be sealed to prevent deterioration. It can be stepped on during fermentation and filling to expel the oxygen in the gap.
(5) Feed. Feeding layer by layer from outside to inside can extend the storage time of feed. Fermented feed can be fed alone, or it can be mixed with full-price feed.
(6) Feeding method.The fermented vegetable leaves become a sweet and delicious bio-fermented feed. The toxins in them have been decomposed and can be fed directly to pigs, chickens, ducks, etc., or they can be mixed with the feed at a rate of 10%-50% and fed. During the fermentation process, the liquid (free water) under the feed can also be fed together with feed. Livestock and poultry fed with fermented feed for the first time should be fed a small amount.
It must be noted that before feeding, the fermented vegetable leaves are poured out and ventilated for about half an hour before feeding, mainly to vent some bad gases.
It needs to be sealed for storage all the time, and it can be stored for half a year without any problem. After feeding and retrieving, it needs to be sealed again.
2. Nutritional changes of the leaves after fermentation
The changes are huge, mainly due to the following changes in parameters:
(1) Detoxification, the toxins in the fermentation will basically disappear during the fermentation of microorganisms;
(2) It can be stored for a long time;
(3) During the fermentation process, the nutrients can be improved and released under the effect of corn, etc., which is better than rice bran and wheat bran feeding or can directly replace rice bran and wheat bran, and the animal's absorption of nutrients is significantly improved.
(4) Cattle, pigs and other animals love to eat, sows can also be fed, and pay attention not to overfeed the pregnant sows (within 30%).
(5) The cost reduction is obvious, especially for the rearing sows, empty sows, and the long-lived native chickens, capers, and ducks, etc., the cost reduction is obvious.
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